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Medicine and Dentistry >
Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology
Editor in chief:Dr. Brijendra Singh
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Sub Lingual Thyroid - A Case Report
Author:Nasreen Fatima Syeda, Sadia Sameera Syeda
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 387-390
Introduction: A sub lingual thyroid anterior to the hyoid bone which is the only thyroid tissue present in the body is a rare entity. It was found due to failure of descent of the thyroid gland to its normal position Methods: 13-14 yr. old female presented with symptoms of severe sinusitis. CT scan was used to perform this study. Result: A Sublingual thyroid gland present in front of the hyoid bone is observed and there was complete absence of thyroid gland at normal position. Discussion: Incidence of lingual thyroid gland is reported as 1:100,000. It is manifested more in females.1:7 Ectopic thyroid tissue can occur anywhere from foramen caecum to its normal position i.e.; in front & sides of trachea at the level of 5th, 6th, 7th cervical & 1st thoracic vertebrae in the human body. 70% of patients with lingual thyroid are associated with hypothyroidism and 10% suffer from cretinism. Conclusion: A sublingual thyroid due to failure of descent of the thyroid gland with congenital hypothyroidism. No known pathogenesis is present in this case. Thorough examination with follow up is important. A thyroid profile, hemogram, an x-ray of the neck & thyroid scan has to be done regularly with interval of at least once in 6 months. Unless there is need for emergency surgery, it should not be performed. Patient should be treated symptomatically. There should be hormonal essay done for every child born and treated as early as possible to avoid the consequences. Starting of treatment in patients with congenital problems of hormones can help the patient to lead a normal life.
Lobulated Spleen With A Fissure On Diaphragmatic Surface
Author:Kumaraswami B Hiremath
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 385-386
During my dissection classes, a bi-lobed and large lobulated spleen with a deep vertical fissure measuring 2cms deep was observed. Fissure is in between superior and inferior border i.e. in diaphragmatic surface. As it is shown in the below photograph, the spleen is marked in two halves with a fissure and make the Spleen in to 2/3rd superior lobe & 1/3rd of inferior lobe. This knowledge is useful to the radiologists and surgeons
?Primary Grynfeltt?S - Lumbar Hernia? ? A Rare Case
Author:Chaudhary Ramkaran, Brijendra Singh
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 382-384
Introduction: Primary lumbar hernias although are rare hernias but causes of lumbar hernia may be classified as congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Lumbar hernias are very uncommon among abdominal wall hernias and very few cases have been reported in the literature. Presentation of case: An old male patient aged about fifty years presented in surgical OPD with complaints of a swelling in left flank region which used to increase in size after standing or physical activities. He was examined thoroughly and it was found to be a reducible hernia on left lumbar region. Patient was advised needful investigations like Ultrasound and CT scan and a diagnosis of primary lumbar hernia was established. This hernia was approached through laparoscopic transabdominal extra peritoneal repair and patient had uneventful post-operative period. Discussion: There are various techniques described in literature about the repair methodologies of lumbar hernia but the minimally invasive techniques are supposed to be far superior in many aspects as compared to open surgical repairs. Conclusion: For primary spontaneous lumbar hernias minimally invasive techniques are preferred over open surgical techniques due to their obvious advantages
Alteration In Autonomic Reactivity From Hypothyroid To Euthyroid Status
Author:Anjali Nadir Bhat, Sabita Yograj, Rakesh Bahl
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 377-381
This study was carried out on 25 hypothyroid patients attending the OPD of Govt. Medical College Jammu before their treatment started and after treatment when they attained euthyroid status. The parameters recorded and the tests used were pulse rate, blood pressure, orthostasis, cold pressor test, mental arithmetic and corrected QT interval [QTc] for assessment of sympathetic reactivity and valsalva ratio, heart rate response, expiratory-inspiratory ratio [E:I ratio], heart rate variability, standing-lying ratio [S:L ratio] and 30:15 ratio for assessment of parasympathetic reactivity. Our findings show significant improvement in parasympathetic reactivity after a hypothyroid subject became euthyroid with L_thyroxine treatment. For sympathetic reactivity only some parameters recorded significant improvement.
Anatomical Correlation Of Undescended Testes
Author:Shubha Srivastava, Kuldeep Singh
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 370-372
Undescended testes are a very common congenital anomaly in India. It is clinical as well as psychological problem for the boys. For the study of location of undescended testes, anatomy of descent of testes is necessary. Ultrasonography is important tool for this study. Patients above the age of six months with history of absent testes in the scrotum either unilateral or bilateral were included in the study. The descent is depends on many factors with gubernaculums playing major role. Ultrasound is the standard imaging technique of choice in children with a non-palpable testis as it is non-invasive and does not use ionizing radiation. Location of testis is also important in deciding whether patient will need abdominal or inguinal surgery. The aim of study, the position of undescended testis by high frequency ultrasound and its anatomical explanation. Total 212 boys with undescended testis were examined by high frequency ultrasound the prevalence was more on right side (104 out of 212), where testis was found located in the inguinal canal. In present study we find that the undescended testes more prevalent on right side and in inguinal region.
A Digital Image Analysis Method For Measuring Femoral Neck Shaft Angle And Anteversion Angle: A Pilot Study
Author:Lakshmi Verma, Sumit Gupta, Tuhin Ghulyani, Pratima Jaiswal
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 362-369
Femur is widely studied in the fields of orthopedics, anthropology, forensic and human kinematics. This study aims to measure neck-shaft angle (NSA) and anteversion angle (FNA) in adult dry femora using digital image analysis software ?ImageJ?. A total of 100 (50 right and 50 left) intact human adult femora were studied. The data was analyzed using SPSS software. The mean NSA and FNA in femora (n=100) was 124.95±6.09⁰ & 13.45±8.58⁰ respectively. The mean NSA in left and right femora was 125.12±5.22⁰ & 124.78±6.9⁰ respectively. The mean FNA in left and right femora was 12.9±8.22⁰ & 14±8.98⁰ respectively. There was no significant side difference in both NSA and FNA. The mean NSA was lower than most of the western studies but it was comparable with most other Indian studies and also Japanese studies. Though the mean FNA was within the range of previous Indian studies but is higher than most other observations. We attribute these numerical differences to different morphometric techniques and measuring points.
The Morphometric Study Of Human Fetal Suprarenal Glands At Various Gestational Ages
Author:Suresh Kumar T, Satish Kumar S, Minu Rekha B
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 357-361
Background: Suprarenal glands are unique endocrine glands that undergo structural modifications both in prenatal and postnatal life to reach the adult status. In recent years, studies were done on the morphology of fetal organs in various gestational ages in assessing the fetal growth. Objectives: The present study aims to study the morphometry of the suprarenal glands in human fetuses of various gestational age groups. Methods: Sixty suprarenal glands from 30 human fetuses of gestational age (14 to 36 weeks) of both sexes were studied. The parameters like shape, length, width, thickness and weight of the suprarenal glands were measured. The fetuses were divided into 6 groups (Group I to VI) based on their gestational age. The mean, standard deviation and range of each parameter were calculated. Correlation between the studied variables and gestational age was also done. Results: The mean, standard deviation and range of all the parameters in all groups and on both sides were determined and their difference in mean was found to be statistically significant. Pearson?s correlation between the gestational age and weight of the fetal suprarenal gland showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study may be useful to the obstetricians, perinatologists, nenatologists and radiologists to assess the age of the fetus based on the weight of the suprarenal glands. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of fetal suprarenal glands is important in the diagnosis of abnormalities of suprarenal glands and also in predicting the outcome of pregnancy.
Sexing Of Hyoid Bone Based On Shapes
Author:Sayeda Sadia Sameera, Syeda Nasreen Fatima, Gulam Mustafa Faisal
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 351-356
Introduction: The present study is to identify the sex of hyoid bone by studying various shapes of hyoid bone, and weight before and after defatting, were taken. Material: The material used in the present study includes 100 hyoid bones of adult male and female of 15-75 years of age group, procured from the cadavers brought to mortuaries for post mortem to Govt. General Hospitals of Hyderabad, and photographs of dried bone, to compare the shapes. Method: The bone was weighed with the help of chemical balance. The various shapes of the hyoid bone were noted and photographed individually and in groups. The readings were tabulated. Result: It was noticed that all the measurement were greater in males than in females. Males have mostly v shaped hyoid bone and females have mostly u shaped hyoid bone. Our findings co-related well with earlier workers, from diverse population groups. Conclusion: Data acquired by this study will contribute to the knowledge available about anthropometric parameters of South Indian population and may hopefully help in racial and medico-legal applications.
A Study Of Dermatoglyphics In Relation With Blood Groups Among First Year Mbbs Students In Malabar Medical College
Author:Deepalaxmi Salmani, Suja Purushothaman, Gopalakrishna, Laveesh Ravindran, Santhi Reghu Nath, Bishar
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 348-350
Objective: To study the relationship between finger print patterns and blood groups among first year MBBS students in Malabar Medical College. Materials and Methods: Finger prints were collected from the subjects after obtaining their informed consent. A total of 140 first year MBBS students of the Malabar Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala participated in the study. Fingerprints of both hands were taken using the violet stamp pad of Camlin company size 15.7cm X 9.6cm. Blood groups of all the candidates were also noted down. The data were tabulated and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Majority of subjects belonged to blood groups ?O? positive followed by ?A? positive, ?B? positive and ?AB? positive. Blood group ?O? was predominantly found in females. Total number of loops found in all the digits were 884 (63.14%). Similarly number of whorls in all the digits of both the hands were 333 (23.78%) and number of arches were 183(13.07%). Frequency of loops, whorls and arches were found to be higher in females as compared to males. Conclusion: Loops were the most commonly found fingerprint patterns and arches were least common. Blood group ?O? positive was most common, followed by ?A? positive and ?B? positive. ?O? negative, ?B? negative and ?A? negative were rarest. Loops, whorls and arches were highest in females as compared to males
Estimation Of Human Stature From Ulnar Length In Rural Region Of Maharashtra
Author:Anjali Krishna Prasad, Satya Narayan Shukla, Abhishek Dinesh Kumar
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 343-347
Introduction: Greek anthropos means ?man? and metron is ?measure? therefore measurement of man- provides scientific methods and techniques for taking various measurements and observation on the living being and the skeleton. The word ?Anthropometry? was first used in the seventeenth century by German physician Johann Sigismund Elsholtz (1623-88). Anthropometry constitutes the means of giving quantitative expression to the variations which different individuals or traits exhibit. Method and Materials: The cross sectional study was carried out on 200 (100 males and 100 females) medical students of Government Medical College of rural Maharashtra in the age group of 18 ? 28 years. The parameters studied were height, length of right and left ulna. The observation were analysed by Pearson?s correlation to examine the relationship between length of ulna and height according to gender for right and left ulna separately. Results: The mean ages of the study subjects (male 21.192±3.25 and female 21.02±3.22) were not significantly different between genders. Mean Ulnar lengths of the male were significantly larger than that of the females of all ages. Positive Correlation was found between total height and ulnar length 0.65 in males and 0.68 in female. Conclusion: Definite proportion exists between the height and ulnar length in all individuals
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