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Medicine and Dentistry >
Medicine and Dentistry (General)
The Journal of Community Health Management
Editor in chief:Prof. S.C. Mohapatra
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Apexification With Apical Plug Of Mta- Report Of Cases
Author:Abhishek Shukla, Ruchika Dewan, Pragya Kumar, Sonali Taneja
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 144-147
Back ground: Immature teeth with necrotic pulp and large periapical lesion are difficult to treat via conventional endodontic therapy. The role of materials such as calcium hydroxide and Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) are indispensable. These case reports present successful healing and apexification using MTA. Methods: The case reports present two cases with traumatized upper anterior teeth. The radiographic evaluation revealed open apices with blunderbuss canals; the canal was cleaned using intracanal instruments and 5.25% NaOCl and final irrigation with 2% chlorohexidine. To obtain canal disinfection slurry of calcium hydroxide was temporized in the canal. In subsequent appointments 3-4mm apical stop was created with mineral trioxide aggregate and allowed to set. Subsequently the root canals were obturated with thermoplasticized guttapercha. A composite resin restoration sealed the access cavity. A 3 month, 6 month and 1 year follow-up revealed clinically asymptomatic and adequately functional tooth. Results: A positive clinical resolution of this case is encouraging for the use of white MTA as a apical plug, in immature teeth with open apex. Conclusion: Apexification in one step using an apical plug of MTA can be considered a predictable treatment and may be an alternative to use a long term calcium hydroxide apexification.
Health And Well-Being Of Nurses In Hospitals In Bangalore
Author:Sunitha Mathai, Harold Andrew Patrick
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 138-143
Background: To identify health related quality of Life (HqOL) of nurses working across three major types of hospitals in Bangalore namely- trust, government and private hospitals. The role of nurses is to provide social and emotional support and care to the hospitalized patients. Investigating the health and well-being of the nursing personnel helps us in understanding the effect of their occupation and surrounding on their health and well-being. Materials & Method: A cross-sectional field survey was conducted by administering the health related QoL (SF-12v2) questionnaire to nurses working in three types of hospitals. The survey had a random sample of healthy nurses (n=115) participating between the age group of 21-50 years. The nurses were met personally in small groups to assign the questionnaire and gather data information. The scale consists of 12 items with varied option for each statement and numbering ranging from 1- 5. The final output calculates the health and well-being of the respondents among the three groups. Result: Mental health and well-being of nurses indicated a below average score for Trust and Private hospital that was significantly lower than the Government hospital nurses. While the physical health and well-being was below average not found significant for all the three types of hospital, indicating that the impact to mental well-being (P<0.01) was greater for nurses. Conclusion: Hospital administrators and healthcare consultants must plan better work environment to improve the health of nurses and thus enhance their productivity.
Assessment Methods - Integrated With Teaching Learning And Skill Development Process In Medicine
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 133-137
Medical education, the art and science behind medical learning and teaching, has progressed remarkably. Assessment is entering every phase of professional development. A wide range of assessment methods currently available include essay questions, patient management problems, modified essay questions (MEQs) checklists, OSCE, student projects, Constructed Response Questions (CRQs), MCQs, Critical reading papers, rating scales, extended matching items, tutor reports, portfolios, short case assessment and long case assessment, log book, trainer?s report, audit, simulated patient surgeries, video assessment, simulators, self assessment, peer assessment and standardized patients. Assessment has a powerful positive steering effect on learning and the curriculum. Assessment is purpose driven. Mastery testing (criterion-reflected tests) requires that 100% of the items are measured correctly to determine whether students have attained a mastery level of achievements. Self assessment (self regulation) is a vital aspect of the lifelong performance of physicians. Self assessment approaches include: written exams (MCQs, True/False, Essay, MEQs, modified CRQs), performance exams (checklists, global rating, student logbook, portfolio, video, etc). Long Essay Questions can be used for assessment of complex learning situations that can not be assessed by other means (writing skills, ability to present arguments succinctly). The questions can incorporate clinical scenarios
Effect Of Vitamin-D Supplementation On Blood Pressure In Post-Menopausal Women: A Community Based Interventional Study
Author:Nimila Elsa Mathews, Paramita Sengupta, Anoop Ivan Benjamin
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 127-132
It has been estimated that 1 billion people worldwide have Vitamin-D deficiency or insufficiency.1 There is wide spread prevalence of varying degrees (50 ? 90%) of Vitamin-D deficiency with low dietary calcium intake in the Indian population.2 Besides its role in bone metabolism Vitamin-D has additional effects on the immune system, neuromuscular function, cancer & cardiovascular system including hypertension. Hypertension affects nearly 26% of the adult population worldwide.3 In India, the prevalence of hypertension in the last six decades has increased from 2% to 25% among urban residents and from 2% to 15% among the rural residents. According to Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, the overall prevalence of hypertension in India by 2020 will be 159.46/1000 population.4 Emerging evidence suggest an inverse relation between Vitamin-D and hypertension
Assessment Of Burden Of Dependency Among Elderly Population In An Urban Slum
Author:Kartik Sudhakar Patil, Meenal V. Kulkarani, Pranita Prashant Dharmadhikari
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 123-126
Introduction: Recent advancements in medical sciences have increased the longevity of life, which in turn has increased the geriatric problems and dependency on society. This study aimed towards assessing the burden of dependency of elderly also to find out association of dependency with socio-demographic variables. Methodology: A cross sectional community based study was carried out among 246 elderly subjects from a slum area in Nagpur. House to house survey was conducted. Katz and Lawton scales for activities of daily living (ADL) and Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) respectively were used to find out dependency among the subjects. Results: Prevalence of dependency was found to be 27.03% and 33.3% depending on ADL and IADL scales respectively. ADL was associated with increasing age, male gender and unemployment/retirement, whereas IADL was associated with increasing age. Conclusion: More than one fourth of elderly population is dependent on others for the basic activities of daily living and one third of them are dependent for instrumental activities of daily living.
An Epidemiological Study On Incidence And Determinants Of Lathyrism
Author:S.P. Singh, Dhiraj Bhawnani, Ajit Parihar, Nirmal Verma
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 113-122
Introduction: Human lathyrism continues to be a public health problem in central India. While osteolathyrism, as such, is not a public health problem, neurolathyrism is of particular importance especially in central parts of India. In particularly Rewa, Satna, Sidhi, Sagar, Seoni, Hoshangabad and Chhattisgarh area of Madhya Pradesh bear the brunt of lathyrism. Ganapathy and Dwivedi (1961) carried out epidemiological study in estate of Vindhya Pradesh (now part of Madhya Pradesh). The sale of L. sativus has been banned in many states in India, but there has not been an effective ban on its cultivation. Lathyrus sativus is hardy crop and survives adverse agricultural conditions. For this reason it has become a main stay of some Indian diets, especially under famine conditions. India farmers continue to grow this pulse despite their awareness of its poisonous nature. It is difficult to provide an alternate crop that would grow under the semi-arid condition of these areas. In recent times, the problem has acquired new dimensions, which hold out possibilities of wider dissemination of the disease. It was probably true that the consumption of Lathyrus seeds had dropped during recent times, but this was probably because other crops like wheat, barley, lentils and Bengal gram had flourished. Material & Method: In order to study the recent trends of lathyrism, the same area and technique have been adopted as were follow by Ganapathy & Dwivedi (1961) and Dwivedi and Prasad (1964). Revisit to study the same area where detail epidemiological work was carried out and reported by Dwivedi & Prasad (1964). They were the following 18 village of Rewa and 10 village of Satna districts. The other part of study included the collection of information of occurrence of cases occurred during the last 10 years period i.e. case occurring from 1975 to 1982. The area of survey restricted to Rewa division to determine those factor responsible for secular variations in the prevalence of disease from the previous I.C.M.R. study spread over a period of 1956 ? 1961 (Ganapathy and Dwivedi. 1961). The standard survey protocol was adopted. Only the established form of disease was investigated. The latent form of disease was not investigated. The established form directly affects the man power and in major public health problem. Observations: The prevalence of disease is higher amongst the male in previous studies (1964) as well as in year 1982. The maximum duration of disease was 10 to 14 years (32.72%) in previous study (1964) where as it is only 4.30 percent in year 1982. Cases of lathyrism occur round the year, both studies reveal that maximum cases occurred from June to October. The maximum cases being 58 (32.76%) were among Kole (S.T.) followed by Chamar being 16.38 percent. The cases amongst Kurmi and Brahmins are equally high being 14.12 and 13.55 percent respectively. The disease was mainly present in low socio-economic group of people being 67.79 percent and 26.5 percent had from class IV socio-economic group. Maximum patients i.e. 115 were landless and 47 had land only up to two acres. Out of them 72.34 percent were growing ?Birri? i.e., mixture of L. Sativus 25-50 percent. Disease was mainly restricted amongst the illiterate but as the literacy status increases the disease was is decreasing. Conclusion: Though the frequency and the magnitude of lathyrism had been reduced, but sporadic cases do occur in some part of the country. Therefore, it is necessary that prevention of lathyrism shall be integrated in general health care programme on regional basis. Surprisingly researches are going on to develop high yielding and less toxic variety of Khesari dal and certainly one cannot ignore the health of the people which is jeopardized by the use of the poisonous pulse resulting in permanent paralysis simply because they belong to the under- privileged sections of the society.
Effect Of Mind Body Therapy (Yoga, Meditation & Music) On Elderly Hypertensive
Author:Karuna Mittal, Parmendra Sirohi, Kc Mathur, Rp Agrawal, Vivek Agrawal
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 108-112
Objective: Hypertension is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly. Several randomized controlled trials have firmly established that lifestyle modifications may be the additional treatment for preventing or even treating milder forms of hypertension in elderly. Material & Methods: 100 elderly (age >60yrs) hypertensive patients were randomly selected for this study. The selected cases were divided into two groups. Group 1 was taking conventional treatment with unsupervised exercise protocol while Group 2 went through a supervised mind body therapy. The following parameters were determined BMI, WHR, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, lipid profile. Results: In the group receiving mind body therapy there was a significant decrease in systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (152.4010.62 to 137.808.71 vs 95.724.21 to 86.872.85) respectively when compared with the group taking only conventional measures. Conclusion: Based on results, mind body therapy, may therefore be considered as a useful adjunct to conventional therapy in management of metabolic syndrome.
Infection Control Protocol In Nicu Suitable For A Peripheral Newborn Care Unit
Author:Prabhakar Patro, Nakul Kothari, Nc Mohanty
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 103-107
With the make in India initiative by the Govt. of India, neonatal care should see a paradigm shift. The present system of purely conservative approach must shift to high end professional and preventive approach towards the management of neonatal cases, as cost of equipment both consumables and non consumables are likely to come down across the board. Effective means of infection control in NICU can be established, once the journey of a microbe from the environment to the susceptible infant is understood. The microbes enter the NICU via visitors and health care workers (HCW?S) and proliferate in susceptible sites. They are spread to the neonate via contaminated equipment and contaminated hands of the HCWs. Once the babies are colonized, the organisms then enter through their umbilical cord and skin during procedures such as venous access, parenteral fluids, enteral feeds, intubation and suctioning of endotracheal tube
Foster Physical Activity & Sports Among Children
Author:Kavita Verma, Biswajit Sardar, Naveen Kumar Mishra
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 101-102
It is widely accepted that physical activity has numerous positive health outcomes including its influence on meeting healthy weight goals, when associated with low-energy intake through healthy eating habits. In children, physical activity is particularly important as it improves gross and fine motor skill development necessary for academic performance (e.g., writing), selfperceived competence (academic as well as athletic) as well as increasing socio-emotional adjustment and self-esteem. Physical activities in groups and games also have social benefits in that they offer children opportunities to learn new skills while developing friendships. Parents have a direct influence on their children?s Physical Activity. Their support of Physical Activity, their own level of PA, and their enjoyment of PA predict the extent to which their young will engage in PA with sufficient intensity and duration.
Socio-Epidemiology Of Migration
Author:Paramita Sengupta, S.C. Mohapatra
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 99-100
The Journal of Community Health Management
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