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Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology >
International Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Research
Editor in chief:Dr. Dhiraj Jayantilal Trivedi
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Prevalence Of Overt And Subclinical Thyroid Disease In Patients Tested For Thyroid Profile In Cims Bilaspur (C.G.)
Author:Vikas Kumar Gupta, Prashant Nigam, S.K.B. Patil
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 343-347
Background: Thyroid diseases are common worldwide. In India too, there is a significant burden of thyroid diseases. According to a projection from various studies on thyroid disease, it has been estimated that about 42 million people in India suffer from thyroid diseases. Thyroid dysfunction has varied impact on pregnancy outcome. Thyroid disorders are amongst the most common endocrine diseases in India. The prevalence and pattern of thyroid disorders depends on sex, age, ethnic and geographical factors and especially on iodine intake. A high iodine intake is associated with lower prevalence of goitre and higher prevalence of hypothyroidism. This study was designed to address this question. We undertook this study to provide reference data for TSH, T4 and T3 in women of this region and evaluate their status of thyroid function. Material and Methods: The study was carried out at Department of Biochemistry, Chhattishgarh Institute of medical sciences, Bilaspur (C.G.). The study was conducted on 1100 subjects of age group 15- 65. The thyrotropin, TSH levels of serum samples were analysed using kits (Diagnostic Product Corporation (DPC), LosAngeles, USA) on the I25 GAMA Counter. Serum T3 and T4 were performed using competitive RIA technique and serum TSH was performed using IRMA technique. Result and Discussion: Of the 1100 total subjects in the age range 15?65 years, 24.1% had thyroid dysfunction and 75.9% were euthyroid. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in group I, 19% hypothyroid, 5% hyperthyroidism 75.9% euthyroid and in group II, 16% hypothyroidism, 4% hyperthyroid and 79.5 were euthyroid. The finding that a large number of women unknowingly have laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction supports the usefulness of screening for early detection. We hope to extend the study to a larger cross section of men and women in this region keeping in mind environmental and etiopathological factors like auto immunity, drugs, Iodine and non-thyroidal illness
Uric Acid In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus With Nephropathy
Author:Usha Sachidananda Adiga, Bn Malawadi
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 340-342
Introduction: Uric acid is an important antioxidant that contributes for around 60% of free radical scavenging capacity of serum. Its role has been controversial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Earlier studies have reported that renal disease leads to elevation of uric acid in DM, but recently high uric acid levels are reported to be risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus. Aim of our study is to compare uric acid in type 2 DM with renal disease with non-diabetics and also to compare its levels among patients in different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Methodology: The case control study was conducted in medical college hospital in coastal Karnataka. Data of serum uric acid, renal profile and demographic profiles of 89 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients was collected from the clinical biochemistry laboratory in the year 2016. Data of 80 non-diabetic controls was taken. Transasia XL-640 was used for the estimation.Estimated GFR (eGFR) was calculated using MDRD formula. Results: We found an elevation in uric acid and creatinine levels, extremely significantly lower eGFR in diabetics (P = 0.0195, P=0.0078 and P =0.0001respectively).Odd?s ratio was 3.128 between uric acid and diabetic nephropathy. A highly significant (P < 0.0016) differences was observed in uric acid levels among patients of different stages of diabetic nephropathy. Conclusion: Hyperuricemia was found in diabetic nephropathy patients. There was a significant difference in uric acid was observed among different stages of nephropathy. However causal relationship is inclusive. Prospective studies need to be designed with a serial monitoring of uric acid, GFR and microalbunuria in diabetics till the development of nephropathy to establish which the cause is and which is effect among these two factors (uric acid and diabetic nephropathy
Association Of Serum Electrolyte With Renal Function, In Diabetes Mellitus - A Pilot Study
Author:Suchitra Kumari, Ipsita Dash, Manaswini Mangaraj
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 335-339
Introduction: Decompensated diabetes mellitus with impaired renal function, acid-base disorders are often associated with electrolyte imbalance. Analysis of electrolytes is often advised without a true indication in Diabetes Mellitus. So our objective was to analyze serum electrolyte profile in diabetes mellitus to determine whether routine measurement of electrolytes can be safely avoided in diabetes. Study Design: This was a retrospective study of hospital records of all Diabetes Mellitus cases who were advised kidney function test during the period January 2014 - August 2015. Medical records and laboratory results of 190 Diabetes Mellitus cases could be retrieved and retrospectively viewed for clinical diagnosis, result of Laboratory investigation i.e. Fasting blood sugar, serum urea, creatinine, Na+ , K+ , Cl- , Ca2+, PO4- .One hundred ninety Diabetes Mellitus cases were divided into 3 groups based on their serum creatinine levels i.e. Group-I (n=98) serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dl, Group-II (n=74) serum creatinine 1.5-3 mg/dl and Group- III (n=18) serum creatinine >3 mg/dl. Results: Out of 190 patients 114 had electrolyte disorder. Serum sodium levels were altered in 45% of Group-I patients, more evident in Group-II (64%) and Group III (89%). Approximately 51% Diabetes Mellitus cases had deranged Serum K+ levels in Group I. Hyperkalemia and hypochloremia were common electrolyte disorders both in Group-II and Group III. Group- I had hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia whereas hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia were more commonly registered in GroupII (40%, 37% respectively) and Group-III (68%, 61% respectively). Conclusion: So it is concluded that in diabetes mellitus electrolyte derangements occur even with normal renal function. So routine measurement of serum electrolyte could not be avoided in Diabetes Mellitus. However, the frequency of electrolyte derangement is more with deterioration of the renal function in Diabetes Mellitus.
Correlation Of Serum C-Peptide And Serum Uric Acid Levels With Glycated Hemoglobin In Patients Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Author:Neha, Anju Sharma, Jaskiran Kaur, Vibha Uppal, Ishanjit Singh
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 330-334
Background: Alterations in serum uric acid levels are associated with changes in Blood glucose. While impaired Glucose tolerance is accompanied with increased levels of Uric acid, the levels decrease once overt diabetes develops. This necessitates the screening of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus to prevent the development of hyperuricemia and gout. Material & Methods: It was a Cross-sectional observational study. The subjects included in the study were divided into two groups. Group A composed of 50 normal healthy individuals, in the age group of 40-65 years of either sex with no family history of diabetes mellitus. Group B comprised of 50 newly diagnosed patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in the age group of 40-65 years of either sex from the same population. Fasting blood sample was withdrawn and investigated for serum c-peptide, serum uric acid, fasting blood sugar and HbA1c. Results: The values of the patients were compared with that of normal healthy subjects. The parameters, serum c-peptide and serum uric acid were found to be significantly increased in the patients of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus as compared to controls (p<0.001). Uric acid showed a positive correlation with serum c-peptides (r=0.224). Conclusion: The rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) indicates the importance of screening and thus Blood Glucose, C-peptides and HBA1c should be evaluated in all subjects over 40 years of age as recommended by American Diabetic Association. This should be accompanied by measurement of Serum uric acid levels as they rise in the early stages of the disease to prevent gout. This should be further monitored with the progression of disease and treatment as uric acid shows a bell shaped changes.
Deciphering The Clinico-Biochemical Mileau Of Perimenopausal And Postmenopausal Women With A Note On Beneficial Effects Of Yoga And Exercise
Author:Nagalakshmi Cs, Ganashree Cp, Krishnamurthy N, Chethana Chethan, Shilpashree Mk
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 325-329
Background & Objectives: Psychosomatic disturbances faced by women approaching their fifth decade have been a matter of concern since many years. Many approaches have been tried to help them, including nutritional, pharmacologic and hormone replacement therapies. However, the importance of regular yoga practice is not much debated though it is believed to improve blood glucose levels & serum lipid concentrations and also to combat oxidative stress. The current study was designed to broadly analyze the clinico-biochemical challenges encountered by such women and to suggest better measures to face them. Methods: A total of 90 women aged around 40-60 years were grouped into perimenopausal, postmenopausal and healthy control groups and were checked for anthoropometric and biochemical parameters like FBS, HbA1c, lipid profile, calcium, magnesium, copper, ceruloplasmin, TSH, uric acid, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total proteins. Results: Age of the subjects, their BMI, blood pressure and waist hip ratio (WHR) together with levels of glycated Hb, LDL cholesterol, TGs, calcium, magnesium, copper, ceruloplasmin and uric acid levels exhibited significant variation among the groups. Conclusions: Several psychosomatic changes encountered in and around menopause and few biochemical changes can be better handled by persistent yoga practice, either alone or in combination with conventional treatment, as it can effectively bring down the oxidative stress levels, chances of developing metabolic syndrome, risk of CVD events and improve the quality of life in such women.
Assessment Of Vitamin D Status In Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In Pediatric Age Group
Author:Pallavi Ashrit, Vishal Kalasker, Srinivasa Rao, Harish Bhat K
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 320-324
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia. Type-1-Diabetes Mellitus (TIDM) results from autoimmune destruction of beta cells leading to insulin deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) may have a role in the pathogenesis and development of T1DM by regulating immune mechanism. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study is to assess and evaluate the connection between fasting blood sugar (FBS), post prandial blood sugar (PPBS), glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc) and Vitamin D levels in children with TlDM. This study included 50 healthy controls and 50 previously diagnosed TlDM cases of both sex in the age group of 6-l5 years. 25 hydroxy Vitamin D3 (25- OH Vit D3) level was estimated by Enzyme Linked Fluorescent Assay (ELFA), FBS, PPBS by GOD-POD method, HbAlc levels by Ion Exchange Resin method. Results: Results showed a decreased 25-OH Vit D3 and an increased FBS, PPBS and HbAlc levels which are highly significant (p<0.00l) in TlDM cases than healthy controls. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between FBS, PPBS, HbAlc and 25-OH Vit D3 (P<0.00l) in TlDM cases. Conclusion: VDD has consistently been shown to be prevalent in children with TIDM, which plays an important role in its pathogenesis. Vitamin D, an immunomodulator is an important factor in glycemic control with subsequent prevention of T1DM and its further complications
Correlation Between Ischemia Modified Albumin With Ph In Acidosis And Alkalosis: A Possible Link
Author:Anurag Yadav, Arun Kumar K, James Gonsalves, Avinash Ss, Sudarshan Surendran
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 316-319
Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), a recently developed marker for myocardial ischemia is measured by using albumin cobalt binding (ACB) assay. The correlation between the formation of IMA and alterations in the pH levels are of considerable importance and the same was not clear in the available literature. Based on our literature search, the study was designed to check and compare the levels of IMA and the pH in acidosis and alkalosis patients with those in normal patients. The mean of IMA in patient with acidosis (0.832±0.16) was higher when compared with the normal pH patients (mean 0.71±0.21). The IMA levels in patients of alkalosis were also found higher (mean 0.804±0.19) compared to that of the normal control. It was also observed that the mean of IMA was lower in the patients with alkalosis than the patients with acidosis. When the IMA levels and the pH levels in acidosis and alkalosis patients were correlated, there was a weak negative correlation between pH levels in acidosis and IMA levels. In alkalosis, the correlation was positive but there was no significance in these changes. In conditions of acidosis and alkalosis, where the pH levels are altered which could be one of the factors responsible for increase in the IMA levels. However, the correlation was weak and an increase in the sample size could provide us with a better relation between the levels of pH and IMA.
Role Of Biomarker Of Oxidative Stress In Preeclampsia
Author:Smita Bahediya, Gaurav Modi, Shobha Chokshi
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 312-315
Objective: To evaluate the role of biomarker of oxidative stress in predilection of pregnancy induced hypertension. Material and Methods: A sample of 200 pregnant women was examined at department of Gynecology and obstetrics at tertiary care hospital from the period of July 2008 to march 2010. Pregnant women were divided into three groups including 100 normal healthy pregnant women which were controls. Another 100 pregnant women having increased blood pressure and proteinuria divided into two groups depend on severity on B.P. and urinary proteinuria. Groups were compared for the levels of antioxidant biomarker for the statistical analysis, suitable test for these qualitative variables with 5% significance were used. Results: Preeclampsia remains a frequent and potentially dangerous complication of pregnancy. The cause remains largely unknown, but oxidative stress and a generalized inflammatory state common are features. In present study, patient with pregnancy induced hypertension shows MDA levels were found significantly higher, while Vitamin C and Vitamin E levels are significantly lower compared with normal healthy pregnant women. Conclusion: A combination of vitamins C and E administration can be found promising for prevention of preeclampsia. As small study group, our study has a limited statistical power if significance several multicenter randomized clinical trials are further required
High Sensitivity?C Reactive Protein As An Additional Marker For Increased Risk Of Cardiovascular Disease In Patients Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Author:Shimi Mahesh Sundharan, Kavita Anil Dipnaik, Pramod Waman Ingale, Sudarshan Nandkumar Shelke, Pooja
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 308-311
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age group with a worldwide prevalence of about 4 to12%1,2 . PCOS is seen in up to 25% of the Caucasians and 50% of the South Asian women respectively3,4 . It is a heterogeneous disorder of unknown aetiology with a strong genetic element5 . PCOS does not exclusively involve the reproductive apparatus; it has a complex number of systemic relevancy symptoms. It leads to Metabolic Syndrome with severe consequences on the cardiovascular system6 . The precise cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in women with PCOS remains unclear because there are no longitudinal studies pertaining to cardiovascular events. There is a paucity of data in regard to cardiovascular event rates and mortality in PCOS hence the present study was aimed to assess cardiovascular disease risk in women with PCOS. Aim: To evaluate cardiovascular disease risk in women with Polycystic ovary syndrome. Materials and Methods: 50 diagnosed cases of PCOS and 50 age matched healthy females were included in this study. Cases were diagnosed based on new Rotterdam criteria formulated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) and the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Serum High sensitivity-C Reactive Protein (hs-CRP), Total Cholesterol(TC), Triglycerides(TG), HDL Cholesterol(HDL-C), VLDL Cholesterol(VLDL-C), LDL Cholesterol (LDL-C) were estimated. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated for women in both the groups. Statistical analysis: Results were analyzed using unpaired t-test and p-value was calculated. BMI was correlated with hs-CRP using one way ANOVA test. Statistically non-significant increased levels of serum total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and hs-CRP in PCOS cases as compared with control were observed. BMI was found to be significantly increased in cases as compared to control. Conclusion: hs-CRP is a known cardiovascular risk marker. In this study though hs-CRP was increased in the case group compared to controls but it was not statistically significant. hs-CRP levels vary with age, sex and BMI. Therefore, age, sex and BMI should be considered when interpreting hs-CRP. Women with PCOS who participated in our study were quite young (15- 35years) and majority of them had a normal BMI and this may be the reason for a relatively smaller risk of CVD compared with other studies.
The Association Of Serum Uric Acid With Total White Blood Cell Count In A Healthy Indian Adult Population
Author:Sathya Selvarajan, Jothimalar R, Santhi Silambanan
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 304-307
Background: Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause for nearly all cases of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) which is a major cause of mortality in men and women. Numerous studies state that the basic pathology behind atherosclerosis is inflammation and oxidative stress. Though uric acid is an anti oxidant, recently studies show that it can be transported across the cell membrane and exert harmful intracellular actions such as oxidation and inflammation. These observations led to many epidemiological studies suggesting that uric acid is linked to and may be a risk factor for CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is an association between serum uric acid and total white blood cell count, a simple marker of inflammation, in a healthy Indian adult population. Method: This is a cross sectional study. Samples were collected for assaying serum uric acid, total white blood cell count and plasma glucose, along with the medical history from 203 apparently healthy individuals who attended health examination at Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre in Chennai. Result: The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis in SPSS software version 16. There was a strong positive correlation between uric acid and total white cell count and the study revealed no significant difference in mean levels of uric acid in tobacco users and non-users. And there was no statistically significant difference between genders in the mean uric acid level. Conclusion: A strongly positive correlation was found between serum uric acid and total white cell count, both in men and women. It appears likely that additionally larger well designed prospective studies that adjust for all possible confounding factors may help to strongly establish the correlation between serum uric acid and total white cell count and their role in proinflammatory states as in atherosclerosis.
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