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Medicine and Dentistry >
Indian Journal of Drugs and Diseases
| ISSN:0974 -5645
Publisher:Indian society for Education and Environment
Editor in chief:Prof.Natarajan Gajendran
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Studies On Vein Gall Of Two Selected Plants In Courtallum Hills
Author:M. Sivagamasundari, V. Krishnan, M. Gopi.
Volume: 5 | Issue no: 1-2016 | Pagination: 1-6
Objectives: Analysis of Plant Galls at their cellular level is one of the technique, which helps a researcher who intends to study the mechanism underlying the growth and development of the plant either in vivo or in vitro. Methods / Statistical Analysis: The present study on the foliar galls deals with the histology of mature galls on two host plants caused by unknown Diptera insect species. Findings: Researchers value galls for their intrinsic biological interest, their use as model systems for physiological and other studies and their potential applications in disciplines such as biological control and plant breeding. Application / Improvements: Inaccessibility of sophisticated instruments and techniques for the in-depth study are regrettable limitations for our investigation. However, it did not detract the efficacy of the studies, because some of the customary instruments and the techniques, if employed with some precision, prove to be sufficiently satisfactory, especially for the studies of fundamental nature as the present one.
Farnesol Wins The Wrestle Against 'Biofilm Associated Protein (Bap)' Of Staphlyococcus Epidermidis
Author:C. R. Hemalatha, S. Archana , Anupma Jyoti Kindo, P. Dhanapalan And Thyagarajan Ravinder
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 2-2014 | Pagination: 311-316
Background/Objectives: Using simple in silico genomic and proteomic techniques, this study is an approach to identify some molecules against the biofilm associated protein (bap) protein of Staphylococcus epidermidis. 'bap' is a gene that is associated with biofilm formation in many Staphylococcus species, which cause biofilms in venous catheters of indwelling medical devices. Methods/Statistical analysis: Various genomic and proteomic analyses revealed that 'bap' has a good scope as a target to combat biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Results: Farnesol, a terpenoid by nature exhibited very good binding with the 'bap' protein compared to other molecules of similar structures, when docked with Hex 4.2. Conclusion/Application: Further analyses on other associated natural compounds on other genes which promote adherence of biofilms, may reveal their capacity to inhibit the biofilm formation on medical devices, which will be a boon to both doctors and patients alike.
Phytoconstituents And Antimicrobial Activity Of Walsura Trifoliata (A. Juss.) Harms.
Author:J. Josphin Mini, Natarajan Gajendran
Volume: 3 | Issue no: 2-2014 | Pagination: 317-323
Background/Objectives: Walsura trifoliata is known for its ethno botanical uses but only scant data is left with scientific proof; moreover, globally there is a spur in documenting and establishing database for available medicinal plants. We report here the medicinal uses of W. trifoliata. Methods: The crude extract obtained from various parts of the plant viz. leaves, bark and root using hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol solvents were investigated. The shade dried plant parts were powdered and subjected to solvent extraction. The crude extract obtained after evaporating the solvent was dissolved in dimethyl sulphoxide before any test or analysis. The pathogenic bacteria used were Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the pathogenic fungi were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Botrytis cinerea, Trycophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Results: Maximum antibacterial activity of methanol root extract (16 mm inhibition zone with 5 mg/ml) was observed with Staphylococcus aureus on Muller Hinton Agar medium. However, the bark extract of the solvent imposed only moderate activity on the bacterium (12 mm inhibition zone with 5 mg/ml). Leaf extracts from all solvent systems recorded poor inhibition in the given concentration. Candida albicans, Trycophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes showed minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.31 mg/ml with methanol root extract. The minimum inhibitory concentration was greater than 2 mg/ml in hexane extract of leaf, bark and root. In the present study the antimicrobial activity was significant in methanol root extract of Walsura trifoliata. Conclusion: The methanol extract obtained from the root of Walsura trifoliata has significant antimicrobial activity due to the phytochemical components present in the root.
Effect Of Selected Yoruba Medicinal Formulations On Certain Biochemical Parameters In Wistar Albino Rats.
Author:Belonwu Dc, Onyieke En, Oghenekaro Uche Ekere
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 5-2013 | Pagination: 288-293
Yoruba medicinal formulations derived from plant extracts are fast becoming one of the most widely consumed medicinal formulation in the rural areas of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to screen evaluate the effect of this medicinal formulation on cetain biochemical parameters of wistar albino rats. Sixty-four rats irrespective of sex were used in this study. They were divided into six groups (control and Groups A-E); with groups A-E split into three groups for testing at week 2, 4 and 6. Each sub group contained four rats and was administered 2.9μl/Kg B.W of each medicinal formulation. Cage side examination was done daily to observe overt signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, yellowing of fur etc). The formulation resulted in a significant increase then reduction in the body weight. Markers of hepatocyte injury; alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase, were initially reduced but increased at week 4. Same was observed for the cholestasis marker alkaline phosphatase. The levels of serum creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen steadily reduced over time. The histological findings of the liver sections indicated gross cirrhosis, degeneration, inflammation and apoptosis in the experimented groups as compared to the control group.
Phytochemical Analysis Of The Yoruba Medicinal Formulations- "Gbogbo Nise" And Its Effect On Some Liver Enzymes.
Author:Belonwu Dc, Onyieke En And Oghenekaro Uche Ekere
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 5-2013 | Pagination: 280-287
The Yoruba formulation called Gbogbo nise is one of the most widely consumed medicinal formulation in the rural areas of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to screen for the various phytochemicals in this medicinal formulation and the effects of these formulations on some liver enzymes of wistar albino rats. Sixty-four rats irrespective of sex were used in this study. They were divided into six groups (control and Groups A-E); with groups A-E split into three sub-groups for testing at week 2, 4 and 6. Each sub group contained four rats and was administered 2.9μl/Kg B.W of each medicinal formulation. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids. Biochemical examination of the serum of experimental groups after 2 weeks of administration, showed an initial reduction in activities of AST, ALT and ALP when compared with control groups. For the results at weeks 4 and 6, all five formulations resulted in significant increase in the level of these marker enzymes. Thus the prolong administration of these medicinal formulation at the dosage used in the study, results in rise in liver enzymes and may be indicative of hepatic damage.
Immunomodulatory Effect Of Withania Somnifera In Broilers Treated With High Doses Of Enrofloxacin
Author:A. Arivuchelvan, S. Murugesan And P. Mekala
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 4-2013 | Pagination: 276-279
The effect of supplementation of Withania somnifera extract on immunomodulatory response in broilers treated with high doses of enrofloxacin in poultry was investigated. Ninety day old broiler chicks of either sex were randomly divided into nine groups of 10 each. Enrofloxacin was administered at 30 and 40 mg/kg orally for seven days during the third week and W. somnifera crude extract was added in the feed at 1 and 2 % from second week onwards and the effect of their combinations was evaluated. The results of the study revealed that enrofloxacin treatment produced highly significant reduction in serum total protein, albumin and globulin and numerical decrease in HI titre against Newcastle vaccine. The groups treated with W. somnifera alone did not differ significantly from the control in all above parameters. Dose dependent increase in all the parameters were noticed in the combination groups which clearly supports the immunoprotective effect of W. somnifera.
Effect Of Selected Yoruba Medicinal Formulations On Certain Haematological Parameters Of Wistar Albino Rats
Author:Belonwu Dc, Onyieke En And Oghenekaro Uche Ekere
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2013 | Pagination: 270-275
Yoruba medicinal formulations derived from plant extracts are fast becoming one of the most widely consumed medicinal formulation in the rural areas of Nigeria. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the effect of these medicinal formulations on cetain haematological parameters of wistar albino rats. Sixty-four rats irrespective of sex were used in this study. They were divided into six groups (control and Groups A-E); with groups A-E split into three groups for testing at week 2, 4 and 6. Each sub group contained four rats and was administered 2.9μl/Kg B.W of each medicinal formulation. Cage side examination was done daily to observe overt signs of toxicity (salivation, lacrimation, yellowing of fur etc). The formulation resulted in a significant increase then reduction in the body weight. The haematological parameters surveyed increased significantly at p < 0.05, most especially the WBC count. The increase in WBC also affirmed the presence of toxins in this formulation. The histological findings of the liver sections indicated gross cirrhosis, degeneration, inflammation and apoptosis in the experimented groups as compared to the control group. These findings suggest that, despite the reported and acclaimed benefits of this formulation, irrespective of the source, its use as a medicinal formulation should be with extreme caution. Regulation of dose and frequency of consumption of this formulation may reduce its toxic side effects.
Comparative Phytochemistry Of Peddled Yoruba Medicinal Formulations
Author:Belonwu Dc, Onyeike En And Oghenekaro Uche Ekere
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2013 | Pagination: 259-270
Yoruba formulations are now widely accepted as medicinal formulations in rural and most urban areas among the low income earners. This study was aimed to evaluate the phytochemical constituents of these formulations. Five different formulations were purchased from traditional medical dispensers in Aluu, Choba, Alakahia, Rumuosi and Rumuokoro communities in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers state Nigeria. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, phenolics and cardiac glycosides. Phylobatanins was absent in all formulations while anthraquinones was absent in the formulation purchased in Aluu community. Quantitative analysis revealed the major components in all five formulations as; Tanins (8.35±0.327 -Aluu; 12.03±0.556 Choba; 5.67±0.231- Alakahia; 7.53±0.456-Rumuosi; 5.63±0.031- Rumuokoro), Flavonoids (4.24±0.21-Aluu; 9.06±0.055 - Choba; 5.54±0.051- Alakahia; 7.35±0.021 - Rumuosi; 8.13±0.062- Rumuokoro), then alkaloids (2.75±0.07-Aluu; 0.82±0.020 - Choba; 5.41±0.100- Alakahia; 3.47±0.023 - Rumuosi; 4.77±0.157- Rumuokoro). These phytochemicals have been implicated in several medicinal capacities, hence, the acclaimed medicinal properties of these Yoruba medicinal formulations.
Awareness And Perception Experiences On Adverse Drug Reaction Among Doctors, Nurses & Pharmacists Of A Tertiary Care Rural Teaching Hospital.
Author:Arbind Kc, Nivedhitha S, Manicvasagam S , Tirumalikolundu Subrmanian P
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 2-2013 | Pagination: 248-258
Induction Of Apoptosis In Myelogenous Leukemic K562 Cells By Ethanolic Leaf Extract Of Annona Muricata
Author:Ezirim Au, Okochi Vi, James Ab, Adebeshi Oa , Ogunnowo S And Odeghe, Ob
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 2-2013 | Pagination: 241-247
Prevalence of cancer, especially in Nigeria, is silently growing at exponential rates due to its nature and numerous risk factors associated with its development. Most chemotherapeutic drugs used today are expensive and toxic to normal cells, hence the need for alternative treatment options. In this present study, the efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata leaves for its cytotoxicity potential and induction of apoptosis in K562 cancer cells, was investigated. Phytochemical screening verified presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. Using Neutral red uptake assay, the ethanolic extract showed peak cytotoxicity levels (P<0.001) at 2.5mg/ml which decreased with increased concentrations. Caspase-3 activity was significantly enhanced (P<0.001) during apoptosis induced by the extract at low quantities, with the peak activity shown at 50μg/ml. Apoptosis was confirmed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) assay. Caspase-3 activity and TUNEL results suggested that the ethanolic extract of Annona muricata induced apoptosis in the myelogenous leukemic K562 cell line. This supports the therapeutic application of Annona muricata to be considered as a natural product source for the development of pro-apoptotic drugs.
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