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Civil and Structural Engineering
International Journal of Architecture (IJA)
Editor in chief:Dr. Kadhim Naief Kadhim
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Browse by Volumes
Understanding Pedestrian Transit In View Of Urban Scenario
Author:Ar. Manita Saxena,Ms. Poonam Kaur.
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 1-2016 | Pagination: 1-7
This paper explains the importance and methods of pedestrian transit systems in context of planning in urban pedestrian systems on street level. The aim is to understand the role of urban planning in making a good city and better pedestrian transit systems and to overcome the challenging conceptions of public spaces. The objective of the research is to study the nature of streets, how streets work in present context, transit nodes and pedestrian network in a city. This paper provides a first step to standardize the way we look at pedestrian systems in context of walk able cities. It draws together research on walk able cities and pedestrian facilities to know how better integration of underground pedestrian networks and skywalks along with other pedestrian facilities and urban pedestrian systems can be achieved.
Style Generative Tool For Suakin Architecture
Author:Olakanbi Bolaji Abdulraheem And Osama Abdulwahab Rayis.
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 1-2016 | Pagination: 1-15
Suakin architecture is ambiguity in creative nature. Suakin architectures with special emphasis to creative design are rich sources of generative mechanism. These mechanisms are remarkable in their architectural rule specification. These are implicated in a variety of architectures including Turkish style, Anglo-Egyptian style, Mumluk style and Traditional style. This study is carried out to introduce shape grammar framework as one of the generative tools for Suakin architecture. Based on the deductive analysis of a corpus of five traditional styles from Suakin architecture, the extraction and composition of new Suakin plan layout is presented. The present study gave preliminary insights into the distinct rich source of generative mechanism of styles generated from Suakin architecture.
Biming The Architectural Curricula - Integrating Building Information Modelling (Bim) In Architectural Education
Author:Manish Mandhar, Meenakshi Mandhar
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 1-20
Building Information Modelling (BIM) reflects the current heightened transformation within the Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry and the Facilities and Management (FM) sector, offering a host of benefits from increased efficiency, accuracy, speed, co-ordination, consistency, energy analysis, project cost reduction etc., to various stakeholders from owners to architects, engineers, contractors and other built environment professionals. Many countries around the world are responding to this paradigm shift including the United Kingdom (UK) where the Cabinet Office in 2011 took the decision to make the use of collaborative 3D BIM technology mandatory for all public sector construction contracts by 2016. According to Smith and Tardif, despite certain myths and misconceptions surrounding BIM, its rate of implementation has been much faster in comparison to the availability of professionals skilled in use of BIM, thus creating a skill gap in the design and construction industry. This article examines to bridge the gap between the graduate skill sets and the changing needs of the profession. The research methodology adopted consists of thoroughly reviewing the existing literature in this subject area coupled with carrying out a survey of accredited schools of architecture in the UK. The analysis of the survey questionnaire results shows the extent to which BIM is currently being taught and identifies the barriers where its implementation has either been slow or not yet started. The paper highlights the fact that there has been considerable delay in the successful integration of BIM in schools of architecture in the UK, thus emphasising the need for expeditiously training and preparing students in the use of BIM making them ready to effectively perform in a BIM-enabled work arena. The paper finally proposes a teaching and learning model for integrating BIM into undergraduate architecture curricula.
Ergonomic Design Of Vdt Workplace For Indian Software Professionals
Author:Shahrukh Ansari, Dr. M I Khan
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 77-85
It is very common to find readymade chairs and tables being used in the workplaces used for Video Display Terminal (VDT) tasks. Various problems have been associated with the use of VDTs, including visual problems, muscle aches and pains, repetitive trauma injuries etc. Visual problems, muscle aches and pains are some of the common complaints reported by VDT operators. When workstations are poorly designed, the result is poor posture because strains are placed on a particular group of muscles, and discomfort level is increased. The objective of this paper is to propose a Recommended Chair and Work Surface dimensions of VDT Tasks for Indian Software Professionals appropriate chair and table dimensions with respect to the Indian anthropometric data have been recommended and presented.
Optimization Of Design Parameters Of Biological Treatment Process For Textile Dye Waste Water Treatment
Author:Umme Zakira, Synthia Tagar, Dr. Faroque Ahmed
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 70-76
Textile Industries are huge sector where a large amount of effluents are produced that, if left untreated or poorly treated, cause detriment to the environment threatening both human health and aquatic life. So it is necessary to purify the effluents before discharging them to water bodies. Biological wastewater treatment processes harness the ability of microorganisms to break down and assimilate organic compounds. Although this process occurs naturally, optimization of design parameters of biological treatment accelerate the process by optimizing bioreactor conditions to promote higher-than-typical biomass concentrations. Hereby, the aim of this study was to optimize the design parameters (aeration period, Sludge volume Index, F/M ratio) to increase the rate of removal of biodegradable substances resulting in enhancing the efficiency of Biological treatment process.
Mechanical Behavior Of Stacking Sequence In Kenaf And Banana Fiber Reinforced -Polyester Laminate
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 56-69
Recently the use of natural fiber reinforced Polyester composite in the various sectors has increased tremendously. The interest in fiber-reinforced polyester composites (FRPC) is growing rapidly due to its high performance in terms of mechanical properties, significant processing advantages, excellent chemical resistance, low cost, and low density. The development of composite materials based on the reinforcement of two or more fiber types in a matrix leads to the production of laminate composites. In the present investigation, the effect of hybridization on mechanical properties on kenaf and banana reinforced polyester composite (KBRP) were evaluated experimentally. The main aim of this paper is to review the work carried out by using kenaf and banana fiber composite. This is due to the environmental problems and health hazard possessed by the synthetic fiber during disposal and manufacturing. The reinforcement made by using the kenaf and banana fiber shows its potential to replace the glass fiber composite. Composites were fabricated using Hand lay-up technique. The results demonstrate that hybridization play an important role for improving the mechanical properties of composites. The tensile and flexural properties of hybrid composites are markedly improved as compare to un hybrid composites.. Water absorption behavior indicated that hybrid composites offer better resistance to water absorption. In addition to the mechanical properties, processing methods and application of kenaf and banana fiber composite is also discussed. This work demonstrates the potential of the hybrid natural fiber composite materials for use in a number of consumable goods.
New Development Of Spinel Bonded Chrome-Free Basic Brick
Author:S. Ghanbarnezhad, A. Nemati, M. Bavand-Vandchali, R. Naghizadeh
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 46-55
Due to the water solubility in Magnesia-Chrome bricks, the hexavalent chromium ion (Cr6+) has been reported for use of these bricks from rotary cement kilns. Therefore, there are being replaced with chrome-free brick mainly of magnesia-spinel type. So, the aim of the present study is to develop new Cr-free brick with the addition of TiO2. All of properties such as bulk density, apparent porosity, cold crashing strength, modulus of rupture strength, hot modulus of rupture strength and refractoriness under load are measured on the basis of JIS standard. Also, the coating test and corrosion resistance were carried out against raw cement meal. Microstructural analysis and phase identification had done by scanning electron microscopy, which is equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDS), also, mineral phases present in the sample were determined by using X-Ray diffraction. According to the result spinel phases such as magnesia-aluminate and magnesia-titanate as a main phase formed as well as other lateral phases which have promoted the properties and microstructure.
Study On The Dynamic Characteristics Of Damage Probability Of Gravity Dam
Author:Xu Qiang, Chen Jian-Yun, Li Jing, Yue Hongyuan
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 31-45
Probabilistic analysis is very significant in concrete gravity dam. In particular, the damage characteristics of concrete can result in nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams and in consequence probabilistic analysis for the damage of those is difficult. The proposed solution is essentially a first-order approximate probabilistic analytical approach for the damage of concrete gravity dams, based on pseudo-excitation method. The proposed method involves the following contents. Firstly, pseudo excitation method and Mazar damage model were utilized to analyze how to calculate the expected value and variance of the damage of dam, which was excited by random earthquake load and static load in the initial condition. Then the evolutive process of probability distribution of tension damage of dam was analyzed in the damage condition based on perturbation theory. Finally, a numerical example was given to verify and analyze the convergence and stability of this model. The results indicate that, compared to pseudo excitation method, the proposed method has the salient features of probabilistic analysis for nonlinear response of concrete gravity dam.
Evaluation And Analysis Of Low Cost Onion Storage Structure
Author:Ms Seema Tenu Borole, Ms. Sarita Patil
Volume: 1 | Issue no: 1-2013 | Pagination: 21-30
Onion produced in Kharif and Late Kharif season is not suitable for storage while onion produced in summer season can be stored upto 5-6 months and it can be brought in the during market rainy season i.e., from June to Oct. There are certain problems which arise during conventional storage of onion viz. loss in weight, sprouting and rotting of bulb. There are three types onion storage structure developed by NHRDF and domestic onion storage structure located at Kalwan.The construction cost per sq.ft. of this structure ie.Traditional onion storage structure, Dindigul onion storage structure, Improved low cost onion storage structure developed by NHRDF, and Low cost onion storage structure (Kalwan) are Rs.2.79 ,1.59,1.28 and 1.03 respectively. The quantity of onions were stored in different onion storage structure during the last week of May is about 1000kg .There are some losses such as weight losses ,rotting losses and sprouting losses were found to be in storage.This losses were found high in storage structure developed by NHRDF as compared to domestic onion storage structure (Kalwan). Thus this structure is proved to be best. The losses are very less, quality and quantity of produce is maintained. The Cost per sq.ft (Rs) and per kg storage cost against construction cost (Rs) of domestic onion storage structure is less as compare to onion storage structures in NHRDF.
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