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Immunology and Microbiology >
Asian Journal of Bio Science
Publisher:Dr. Rakesh Kumar Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. M. Venkateshwarlu
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Heterosis Breeding In Tomato For Yield And Quality Contributing Trait
Author:Pawan Kumar1, Ramesh Choudhary1 And Bhanwar Lal Jat2
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 259-279
In the present study of correlation which revealed that average fruit weight, number of fruits per plant, equatorial fruit diameter, polar fruit diameter, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid content possessed significant positive correlation with total fruit yield and days to 50 per cent flowering and days to first fruit set was having high significant negative correlation with total fruit yield. On the other hand total soluble solids content have high significant positive correlation with lycopene content, total carotenoids content, total phenol content and total antioxidant capacity and total soluble solids exerted high significant negative correlation towards titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content. This study revealed that large size tomato fruits are not just good yielder moreover, they are also nutritionally very rich in quality. Path analysis studies in this research work revealed high direct positive effect of number of fruits per plant, equatorial fruit diameter, polar fruit diameter, days to first flowering, days to first fruit set on total fruit yield and quality both. While high negative direct effect on total yield was expressed by days to 50 per cent flowering, average fruit weight, lycopene content, total carotenoids content. Hence, selection for number of fruits per plant, equatorial fruit diameter and polar fruit diameter can be effectively done for improving yield. While heterosis studies showed that cross Pusa Rohini x CLNB possessed high significant SH towards days to first flowering, days to 50 per cent flowering, days to first fruit set. Arka Alok x CLNB posessed high significant BPH and SH heterosis in the desirable direction for total fruit yield, while Pusa Rohini x Sel-12 was having high significant standard heterosis for total soluble solids, lycopene content and total carotenoids content , respectively. On the basis of combining ability studies we were able to identify the best parents and hybrids based on GCA and SCA analysis. So on GCA basis Kashi Vishesh was found to be the best general combiner in relation to fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield whereas Sel-12 was found to be the best general combiner in relation to earliness while Pusa Rohini was found to be the best in relation to important biochemical aspects. While on SCA basis cross Arka Alok x CLNB was found to be the best specific cross combination for fruit yield per plant and total fruit yield. Whereas Pusa Rohini x CLNR was found to be the best specific cross combination in relation to biochemical parameters i.e. for total soluble solids content, lycopene content, total carotenoids content, total antioxidant capacity and ascorbic acid content.
In Vitro Total Antioxidant Activity And Nitric Oxide Scavenging Of Anogeissus Latifolia
Author:Aakanksha, Rameshwar Groach And Narender Singh
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 254-258
Anogeissus latifolia (Roxb.Ex DC.) Wall.exGuill. &Perr. (Combretaceae) commonly known as bakli, dhau, dhawa or axle wood is a moderate sized tree characteristic of dry deciduous forests flourishing mainly in India. It is used in traditional systems of medicine to enhance the immune system and in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, diarrhoea, dysuria, cough, colic, snakebite, digestive ailments, skin and cardiovascular diseases. In this study, methanol and water extracts were prepared from powdered bark and leaf of A. latifolia. The extracts were studied for nitric oxide scavenging and total antioxidant activities determined by spectrophotometric technique. The results of this study show that the methanol and water extracts of A. latifolia can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants.
Erodibility Status Of Soils Under Different Land Uses In Chiephobozou Sub-Division Soils Ofkohima,Nagaland
Author:Manoj Dutta, Ruopfiinuo Mezhii, Rizongba Kichu And Sewak Ram
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 248-253
Land use effect on soil erodibility parameters were studied in four villages, viz., Tsiesema, Riisoma, Chiephobozou and Botsa in Kohima district, Nagaland, under four land uses, viz., orchard, shifting cultivation, lowland and forest in each village. The mean textural classes of the soils were clay, clay loam and sandy clay loam. Dispersion ratio and erosion index were recorded to be usually higher than the threshold limits. Dispersion ratio of the soils ranged from 8.16 to 30.53 whereas, erosion index varied between 5.28 and 23.91. A significant negative correlation of clay with dispersion ratio and erosion index was observed. The highly significant and positive correlation between erosion index and dispersion ratio indicated the susceptibility of these soils to water erosion. Proper agronomic and mechanical soil and water conservation measures need to be adopted to protect the soils from further degradation.
Variability, Heritability And Genetic Advance In Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Author:Sujeet Kumar And Alok Kumar Singh
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 244-247
Genetic parameters for yield and its correspondent characters in rice were estimated from a trial with two CMS, twenty testers and forty hybridscross evaluated for ten characters related to yield. The highest GCV was recorded for grain yield plant-1. High heritability and the low genetic advance were recorded for grain yield plant-1, spikelet fertility, plant height, harvest index, seedling height, flag leaf area, panicle bearing tillers plant-1, test weight and panicle length suggesting apredominance of non-additive gene action in the inheritance of these traits.
Use Of Plant Products (Extracts) As A Natural Fungicide Against Rhizoctonia Solanikuhn.
Author:Sandeep Chaudhary1, Akhilesh Kumar Gupta1, C.O. Samuel1 And P. P. Upadhyaya2
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 237-243
Eleven commonly available plant species Acalypha indica L., Achyranthes aspera L., Anisomeles indica L., Curcuma malabarica Velay., Dendrophthoe falcata L., Hedychium spicatum Buch., Lantana indica Roxb., Lantana camara L., Leucas aspera Willd., Oxalis corniculata L., Psidium guajava L. were tested for in vitro fungicidal activity on Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., a causative agent of Black Scurf disease of potato. Out of eleven, the products of four plants showed significant fungicidal activity against the test pathogen by poisoned food technique. Curcuma malabarica Velay. and Hedychium spicatum Buch. showed 100 per cent inhibition of mycelial growth at 0.5 ml concentration. Results of the present investigation indicate that the selected plant species possess fungicidal activity and can be exploited as natural fungitoxicants to control the growth of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.
Influence Of Abiotic And Biotic Factors On The Incidence Of White Fly,Bemisia Tabaci (Gen.) On Tomato
Author:S. K. Mishra, R.K. Saraf And Vikas Gupta
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 233-236
The incidence of whitefly was started in the fourth week of August (1.80 / plants). The whitefly population reached to its peak (21.10 white fly / plants) in the last week of September (39th meteorological week). Average maximum (33.61 °C) and minimum (18.58°C) temperature with average morning and evening relative humidity was 74.01 and 46.42 per cent, respectively, favoured the faster multiplication of white fly. The initial incidence of C. septempunctata was recorded in the last week of August and attained its peak in the last week of September. The population of C. septempunctata was influenced by the host insect as both were at peak the same time (3.50 beetles / 21.10 whitefly). Positive and non-significant correlation was found between whitefly and maximum temperature ( r = 0.5546) and significant positive correlation was found between minimum temperature ( r = 0,2025). The relationship between the whitefly population and rainfall was also negative and non-significant (r = - 0.1636). Positive nonsignificant correlation was found between beetle,C. septempunctata and maximum temperature ( r = 0.2620), minimum temperature ( r = 0.2990 ).
Morphology Of Flower, Pollen And Orbicules Ofmeghalayan Dioscoreal. (Dioscoreaceae),North-East India:A Pivotal Taxon In The Evolution Of Monocot
Author:Nilofer Sheikh And Yogendra Kumar
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 223-232
Flowers, pollen and orbicules morphology is an important source of information for systematic and evolutionary studies among different species, genera and families level. In the present study the floral, pollen and orbicules morphology of 80 samples of the genus Dioscorea L. representing 8 species native to Meghalaya were studied. Trichopus and Tacca, the allied genera with Burmannia of Burmanniaceae, nearest family of Dioscoreaceae were selected as an outgroup for the present study. Variation in floral, pollen and orbicules characters were observed and 62 descriptors or traits were selected for morphometric analysis. Pollen of Dioscorea is monosulcate or bisulcate with perporate or microrecticulate sexine sculptures. Orbicules were mostly spherical with smooth surface.
Genetic Variability, Divergence, Correlation And Path Analysis In Foeniculum Vulgaremill. Germplasm
Author:Pawan Kumar Patidar1, Ramesh Choudhary1 And Bhanwar Lal Jat2
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 209-222
The importance of fennel is well realized on account of its high remunerative prices, domestic consumption, medicinal value and means to get earn foreign exchange. Despite the economic importance of fennel, disease resistant, locally acceptable and high yielding crop. The present investigation was therefore, carried out to estimate the magnitude and nature of genetic variability in terms of variation, heritability, genetic advance and genetic diversity for different traits like seed yield per plant and yield contributing traits in a set of 50 germplasm with four checks and extent of environmental influence on these traits, form the basis on which a breeder can predict the extent of dependence on phenotypic selection for improvement of traits. The analysis of variance revealed that significant amount of variability was present in germplasm lines for almost all morphological traits studied as days to germination, 50 per cent flowering, king umbel anthesis, number of number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, plant height (cm), diameter of king umbel (cm), number of umbels per plant, number of umbellates per umbel, number of seeds per umbel, at a test-weight (g) and seed yield (g). A wide range of mean for yield and some of its contributing traits indicates good chance for improvement of yield through direct selection or by transferring desired traits. On the basis of mean performance of yield and other yield contributing morphological traits, the germplasmAF-22, AF-63, AF-85, AF-96, AF-128, AF-48, AF-45, AF-62, AF-47, AF-58, AF-80, AF-154, AF-32, AF-44, AF-108, AF-140, AF-134, AF-22, AF-63, AF-85, AF-96, AF-128, AF-48, AF-45, AF-62, F-47, AF-58, AF-80, AF-154, AF-32, AF-44, AF-108, AF-140, AF-134, AF-22, AF-63, AF-85, AF-96, AF-128, AF-48, AF-45, AF-62, AF-47, AF- 58, AF-80, AF-154, AF-32, AF-44, AF-108, AF-140, AF-134, were found to be superior. The variability of characters was compared on the basis of co-efficient of variation. The genotypic co-efficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic co-efficient of variation (PCV) were worked out. Higher GCV (genotypic co-efficient of variation) was recorded for number of umbels per plant (15.7), seed yield (12.4) and number of secondary branches per plant (12.3), it expresses the true genetic potential which indicated the presence of high amount of genetic variability for these characters thus, selection may be more effective for these characters because the response to selection is directly proportional to the component of variability, while, number of seeds per umbellate (11.9), king umbel diameter (10.8) and umbellate per umbel showed moderate to high genotypic co-efficient of variation. Whereas primary branches (9.6), test weight (8.1) showed low magnitude of genotypic co-efficient of variation. Higher PCV was recorded for number of umbels per plant (16.7), king umbel diameter (14.3) and number of secondary branches per plant (14.0), while, seed yield (g) (12.5), number of seeds per umbellate (12.1) and number of umbellates per umbel (11.1) showed moderate to high phenotypic co-efficient of variation. Whereas number of primary branches (10.6), test weight (g) (8.9) showed low magnitude of phenotypic co-efficient of variation.
Bioefficacy And Dissipation Studies Of Spiromesifen Against Mite, Polyphagotarsonemus Latus Banks On Capsicum Under Field Conditions
Author:V.L. Pathipati1, T.V.K. Singh2, S.B. Vemuri2, R.V.S.K. Reddy2 And N.B. Bharathi2
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 202-208
Field experiments were conducted during 2013-14 and 2014-15 to evaluate the new insecticides for the management of mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus banks and dissipation of effective insecticide on capsicum. Among the seven insecticides, mean of two seasons under poly house condition, population was less with spiromesifen (0.06 mites/ leaf) followed by diafenthiuron (2.21 mites/ leaf), triazophos (3.68 mites/ leaf) and thiamethoxam (5.30 mites/ leaf) which were significantly superior over untreated check (11.33). Spiromesifen residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of spiromesifen was performed on LC- MS/MS (PDA). Initial deposits of 1.61 mg kg-1 of spiromesifen detected at 2 hours after last spray, dissipated to BDL at 10th day after spray. The half-life and safe waiting period for harvest was 2.09 and 10.00 days, respectively.
Genetic Analysis Of Sesamum Indicum L. Germplasm Using Rapd Markers
Author:K. Hanumantha Rao1, Ramesh Choudhary1 And Bhanwar Lal Jat2
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 194-201
Genetic diversity among 14 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions was examined at DNA level by means of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Twenty primers used to produce a total of 201 RAPD fragments, of which 120 (59.70%) were polymorphic. Each primer generated 4 to 15 amplified fragments with an average of 10.05 bands per primer. Based on pair-wise comparisons of RAPD amplification products, simple match similarity co-efficients were computed to assess the associations among the accessions. Pair-wise similarity indices varied from 0.63 to 0.91. A UPGMA cluster analysis based on these genetic similarities located most of the accessions far apart from one another, showing a high level of polymorphism. Genetically, all the genotypes were classified into four major clusters. A single accession (Kayamkulam) was relatively distinct from rest of the accessions and created independent cluster. In conclusion, even with the use of a limited set of primers, RAPD technique revealed a high level of genetic variation among sesame accessions collected from diverse ecologies of India. This high level of genetic diversity among the genotypes suggested that RAPD technique is valuable for sesame systematic and can be helpful for the upholding of germplasm banks and the competent choice of parents in breeding programmes.
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