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Environmental Science >
Environmental Science (General)
Asian Journal of Environmental Science
Publisher:Rakesh Kumar Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. P. Singh
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Solid Waste Disposal Site Selection Using Multi-Criteria Evaluation In The Gis Interface:A Case Study Of Neyyattinkara Municipality, Kerala, India
Author:Soya Y. Das, V.R. Prakasam And P.G. Vinod
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 178-189
Selection of sites for solid waste disposal is one of the biggest hitches in semi urban and urban areas because of the harmful impacts of wastes on public health. The present paper focuses on the identification of suitable site for solid waste disposal using multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) in the geospatial environment of Neyyattinkara Municipality, located 20km south of Thiruvananthapuram in Kerala. Eight thematic layers such as land use, geomorphology, slope, population density, distance from streams, distance from roads, drainage (stream) density and road density have been considered in the analysis. The resultant thematic maps have been allocated weightages and suitability scores. The final potential site map for solid waste disposal is developed by applying weighted overlay method by integrating the factors in the GIS software. The study revealed that a total area of 0.13 sq.km (31.76 acres) in the Neyyattinkara municipality is suitable for solid waste disposal. This very high potential area is spatially distributed in 13 out of 44 wards of the municipality. Of all, ward number 19, Thavaravila has the highest potential area of 9.52 acres for solid waste disposal. The potential site suitability map for solid waste disposal will serve as base information for locating the solid waste disposal areas in Neyattinkkara municipality. Further, this methodology can be applied to other municipalities and townships in Kerala which have similar terrain characteristics.
Dryland Agriculture In India ? Problems And Solutions
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 171-177
Dry land agriculture is the agriculture which limits the crop growth to a part of the year due to lack of sufficient moisture (Peterson et al., 2006). 68 per cent of the cultivated area in Indian agriculture comes under dryland, which contributes about 44 per cent of the total food production and plays a critical role in India?s food security. A vast majority of the small scale farmers depend on the dry regions for their livelihood. According to the Fourth five year plan of India, dry lands are defined as areas which receive rainfall ranging from 375 mm to 1125 mm and with very limited irrigation facilities. Dry regions are economically fragile regions which are highly vulnerable to environmental stress and shocks. Degraded soils with low water holding capacities along with multiple nutrient deficiencies and depleting ground water table contributes to low crop yields and further leading to land degradation. In order to ensure long term sustainability for dry land agriculture in India, various components are to be taken into consideration like socio-economic resources, integrated water shed development, improvement of rain water use efficiency, diversification of agriculture through livestock farming alternative land uses and integrated soil?nutrient-water-crop management. Dry land farming areas needs much closer attention.
Effect Of Treated Tannery Effluent And Domestic Waste Water Irrigation On Tagetes Erecta
Author:G. Balasubramanian And P. Dhevagi
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 164-170
Tanning industry is generating enormous quantities of effluent every day. The scientific ways and means of utilizing this liquid waste is of utmost important in reducing pollution load to the environment. Present study has been carried out to apply treated tannery effluent (TTE) diluted with domestic waste water (DWW) as irrigation sources at different concentration of 25 per cent, 50 per cent, 75 per cent and 100 per cent on a non food crop Tagetes erecta. Results reveal that application of diluted mixture of TTE along with DWW can be used efficiently for crop production. Germination percentage of 73.13 per cent was recorded with 25 per cent of TTE and 75 per cent of DWW dilution as compared with 71.17 per cent in control. Different growth parameters showed variation with different level of diluted tannery waste water application. Highest root and shoot length was observed in control (11.08 cm and 10.70 cm) followed by 25 per cent effluent irrigation (11.22 cm and 10.47 cm). Different concentrations of tannery effluent were found to influence the vigour index significantly. The highest vigour index was observed at control (1601.1) followed by 25 per cent effluent concentration (1585.59). The lowest vigour index was observed in case of treatment receiving 100 per cent effluent concentration (173.48). Red soil with different concentration of treated tannery effluent with domestic waste water recorded good results as compared to the black cotton soil.
The Impact Of Weather Forecasting Advisory Services In Decision Taken In Field Operation
Author:Rajesh, A.K. Godara, S.K. Mehta, C.D. Autade And Gagan Mehta
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 160-163
Weather and climate condition influence the society and economy. In addition year to year variation to timing, intensity and duration of seasonal precipitation and extreme temperature has large impact on people and physical landscape. Seasonal climate forecast provide probabilistic monthly or seasonal climate prediction for the forthcoming year. Agricultural activities are very dependent on climatic condition. The failure of crop to produce good yield is very often due to bad climate. Capability of farmers to use climate forecast to anticipate the events is very limited. Farmers and farming community throughout the world survived and developed by mastering the ability to adopt widely varying weather and climate conditions. However, dramatic growth in human population is imposing enormous pressure on existing farming production system. Knowledge of seasonal climatic forecast allows farmers and other user of climate information to develop seasonal management strategies learning to potential improvement in the productivity. Benefit arises when the use of forecasts results in decisions that reduce the vulnerability of human populations to the adverse impacts of climate variability. The focus here is on impacts of climate variability on agricultural production systems and decisions related to their management. We can represent the opportunity to benefit as falling within the intersection of human vulnerability, climate predictability and decision capacity.
Effect Of Mulching, Hydrogel And Nutrient Management On Productivity Of Summer Groundnut
Author:H. Patro And M. Ray
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 156-159
A field experiment was conducted at the AICRP on Groundnut, Bhubaneswar Centre of Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology, Bhubaneswar during Rabi-Summer,2013-14 in a split-plot design with three replications two mulching practices (With biodegradable mulch and Without biodegradable mulch) in the main plot sown with three hydrogel levels (Control(Irrigation as per recommendation), - 2.5 kg/ha (reduce 2-3 irrigation depending on location and 5.0 kg/ha(reduce 2-3 irrigation depending on location)in the sub plots and three levels of Nutrient management practices (Organic nutrient management(locally available resources), Inorganic nutrient management and Integrated nutrient management in sub sub plots. Pod yield (2104 kg/ha), haulm yield(4025 kg/ha), nodules/plant (40.3), shelling per cent (68.9%), hundred kernel weight (40.2g), B:C ratio (2.11) and r net monetary returns (Rs.43172/ha) were obtained with biodegradable mulch which was significantly higher than practice without mulching (1650 kg/ha , 3276 kg/ha,34, 63.2 %, 32.7 g, 1.66 and Rs. 25499/ ha), respectively. Application of hydrogel @5.0 kg/ha to groundnut also significantly influenced pod yield of groundnut (2326 kg/ha) than control and other lower levels. The integrated nutrient management practices followed in groundnut was found to be significant with respect to pod yield(2397 kg/ha) and yield attributing characters than either fully organic or inorganic nutrient management practices.The combined application with biodegradable mulch, hydrogel @5.0 kg/ha and integrated nutrient management practices followed in groundnut proved to be significantly superior with respect to pod yield of groundnut (2397 kg/ha),net return of Rs. 54524 Rs./ha and benefit cost ratio of 2.40 over other combinations studied.
The Sources Of Information Of Farmers About Weather Forecasting Advisory Services
Author:Rajesh, A.K. Godara, C.D. Autade, S.K. Mehta And Gagan Mehta
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 152-155
Knowledge of seasonal climatic forecast allows farmers and other user of climate information to develop seasonal management strategies learning to potential improvement in the productivity. Although the full potential is yet to be realized, seasonal climate forecast have shown promise in determining planting dates, irrigation needs, crop types , fertilization and planting varieties. Expected market condition, pest and disease and the need for the farm insurance for upcoming season can all be estimated using seasonal forecast. Accurate and timely forecast of rainfall pattern and other weather variable continue still be a major challenge and preoccupation for the scientific community to sustain the agricultural development. As far as use of information sources credibility as well as its utilization. The information as perceived by respondents about weather forecasting advisory services is concerned. The data revealed that television and radio were the most preferred source of weather forecasting information ranked it as first. The second most used source of information were mobile SMS facilities of CCS HAU, Hisar and newspaper. While in case of utilization of information sources radio and television were most preferred while other sources of information for weather forecasting were not utilized by farmers. Radio was the most common medium through which pastoralists receive external climate forecast. The major sources of information to the mango growers were radio, extension workers and TV. Study reported that friends followed by neighbors and relatives were the most sought after information sources for receiving information on all practices at every stage of innovation decision process.
Isolation Of Actinomycetes From Marine Sediments Of Muttukadu
Author:P. Dhevagi And V. Karthiga
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 144-151
Among the marine organisms, Actinomycetes had gained special attention due to its major role in recycling organic matter, production of wide varieties of bioactive compounds like enzymes, antibiotics etc. In the present study Actinomycetes producing L-asparaginase activity were isolated from marine sediments of Muttukadu. Nineteen isolates were obtained and among 19, three isolates viz., MK1, MK15 and MK 16 showed maximum asparaginase activity. The enzyme extracted from the isolates was partially purified by salting out with ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by sephadexG200 filtration. The isolate MK 16 showed high specific activity of 65 IU/mg.
Fluoride Distribution In Groundwater, Soil And Some Crops Grown In Fluoride Endemic Area
Author:D. Vijaya Lakshmi, K. Jeevan Rao, T. Ramprakash And A.P.K. Reddy
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 137-143
Fluoride content of ground water, soils and some cereal and vegetable crops were estimated in 26 villages in Aatmakoor mandal of Nalgonda district, Telangana, India. The results indicated that, accumulation of fluoride (F) was observed in different plant parts of crops irrigated with F contaminated ground water (0.73 to 3.25 and 1.12 to 4.67 mg L-1 during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively) grown in soil containing 0.41 to 2.32 and 0.68 to 2.63 mg kg-1 available fluoride during Kharif and Rabi seasons, respectively. All the values obtained were well below the toxic limit of 2.57 to 6.44 mg kg-1 in soil and maximum contaminant level of 4.0 mg kg-1 in crops and vegetable stipulated by EPA, FAO, and WHO Joint standard limit for fluoride. The implication of the results is that the use of the ground water for irrigation and the contribution of fluoride to the soil and absorption by the crops, has no deleterious effect on the soil and some crops cultivated with ground water. Maximum accumulation of F (mg kg-1 dry wt.) occurred in the roots followed by shoot and economic part. The mean F levels in the economic part of the crops analyzed are follows the order, paddy > sorghum > red gram in Kharif and groundnut > paddy > sorghum in Rabi.
Assessment Of Sticky Trap Parametersviz., Colour, Height, Direction And Combination With Azadirachtin Against Cotton Leafhopper
Author:S.D. Bantewad, A.Y. Thakare And R.M. Wadaskar
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 2-2016 | Pagination: 129-136
In the present investigation relative trapping efficiency of various colour sticky traps at four heights; alone and in combination with azadirachtin 10000 ppm @ 2ml/lit. was assessed against cotton leafhopper. Data on trap height revealed superiority of sticky trap erected 15 cm below crop canopy in terms of significantly higher adult leafhopper trapping (716.67/trap) and was comparable with trap along the crop canopy (634.78/trap). These superior treatments were followed by trap installed at 30 cm and 60 cm above the crop canopy with 517.50 and 192.47 leafhoppers /trap, respectively. Use of yellow colour trap was most efficacious with respect to trapping of adult leafhoppers (736.56 leafhoppers/trap) and was followed by combination of yellow and blue colour (498.48 leafhoppers/ trap), whereas, least population was trapped on blue colour traps with 315.10 leafhoppers/trap. Significantly higher catches of leafhopper on trap were evident when used in combination with azadirachtin sprays on crop (353.14/trap) over traps without azadirachtin sprays (274.38/trap). Interaction effect of trap height, colour and azadirachtin on total catches of leafhoppers indicated superiority of yellow sticky trap erected at 15 cm height below crop canopy in combination with azadirachtin spray and was in turn statistically at par with the yellow sticky trap along crop canopy in combination with azadirachtin spray and yellow sticky trap at 15 cm height below crop canopy without azadirachtin spray. Higher efficacy of trap colour and height combination was evident in combination with azadirachtin 10000ppm @ 2ml/lit. spray on crop with yellow sticky trap at 15cm below crop canopy as the most effective in recording minimum population of leafhoppers (2.40 and 3.32 leafhoppers/leaf) over 5.42 and 6.45 leafhoppers/leaf in untreated control at 7 and 14 days after application of azadirachtin. Irrespective of trap colour, height and combination with azadirachtin significantly maximum catches of leafhopper population was recorded on trap in North East direction as compared to South West direction.
Impact Of Drought On Agriculture In North Karnataka - An Economic Analysis
Author:Laxmi N. Tirlapur And N.R. Mamle Desai
Volume: 11 | Issue no: 1-2016 | Pagination: 87-93
Agriculture, in India, is strongly affected by two major hydro-meteorological disasters, namely drought and flood. As a result drought is considered as one of the biggest menace to agriculture among all weather related crisis. Keeping this in view present study was carried out to analyse the impact of drought on agriculture in North-Karnataka. Study was based on primary data collected using pretested schedule. Data was analysed using tabular analysis. Results of the study revealed that 97.50 per cent of the responded that drought cause?s very high reduction in household income and it causes unemployment. Majority of respondents opinioned that population migration (37.50 %) and conflicts for water in the society (18.75 %) was very high due to drought. Drought had very high impact on some of the parameters such as declining in ground water level (85 %), created water scarcity (71.25 %), average temperature was increased (18.75 %) and degraded pasture (6.25 %). During normal year farmers were able to get 4.39 q, 3.16 q, 3.18 q, 8.28 q, 4.89 q, 3 q, 3.89 q, 10 q, 9.85 q, 4.55 q and 4.62 q of Jowar, Wheat, Bajra, maize, Tur, Greengram, Chickpea, Groundnut, Cotton, Sunflower and Safflower, respectively. But during drought years yield levels of the crops was less. About 74.28 per cent less yield was obtained in case of Bajra followed by 61.34 per cent reduction in Tur yield. In case of Belagavi district, farmers were able to get 53.26 per cent reduction in Jowar yield. Farmers were able to get 15.52 quintal and 12.11 quintals of maize during normal and drought years, respectively. Due to drought farmers were carried out double sowing. About 31.66 per cent and 20 per cent of the respondents were able to carry double sowing in Vijayapura and Belagavi districts, respectively. Majority of the farmers said that in order to overcome the drought they search for alternative source of income (71.25 %) and store the crops for future consumption (70 %). Other alternative preparative measures adopted by farmers are storing of crop residue for livestock, growing less water consuming crops, selling of some livestock?s and migrated for alternative source of employment.
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