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International Journal of Agricultural Engineering
Publisher:Dr. Rakesh Kumar Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. R. D. Singh
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Performance Evaluation Of Machinery For Sugarcane Handling And Trash Management
Author:S. Mukesh And Vijaya Rani
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 234-238
The sugarcane cultivation and sugar industry in India plays a vital role towards socio-economic development in the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources and generating higher income and employment opportunities. About 7.5 per cent of the rural population, covering about 45 million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and a large number of agricultural labour are involved in sugarcane cultivation, harvesting and ancillary activities. There are about nine States in India where sugarcane is grown on a large extent of area. There are a number of varieties that are grown in India depending on the suitability of the soil. The area, output and yield and sugarcane cultivation is subjected to fluctuate in response to policies of the government and also conditions of cultivation. Sugarcane is a labour intensive crop and shortage of labour and unavailability of labour at reasonable rate is the major concern in sugarcane cultivation. To combat the paucity of labour, mechanized sugarcane cultivation is the only option to carry out all the operations in time. The next phase of revolution in Indian agriculture is bound to come through the use of improved agricultural machinery suiting to local conditions. The performance evaluation of sugarcane handling equipments like tractor front mounted sugarcane loader, tractor operated sugarcane billets collector cum unloader and tractor PTO operated sugarcane trash shredder were conducted at Farm Machinery Testing Centre, CCSHAU, Hisar and the performance has been found to be satisfactory. Concerted efforts are required to formulate a strategy for mechanising sugarcane production in India with the sole aim of increasing production and productivity per unit time, area and input at reduced cost of unit operation to survive in the highly competitive international sugar market.
Studies And Performance Of A Garlic Planter In Uttar Pradesh
Author:Devesh Kumar, Jitendra Kumar And Kamal Kant
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 228-233
The main concept of design and development of garlic planter is fabrication, the drilling planter and itsmetering device are simple in their structure and easy to manufacture. This study followed research after the 3 types of garlic planter was fabricated in 2001 which included; 1) inclined metering plate garlic planter, 2) vertical metering plate garlic planter and 3) spring plate garlic planter. In this study, 2 model were constructed which included; 1) The vertical metering plate with triangular grooves and 2) The bucket type garlic planter. The uniformity of metering system test for the 2 models, the bucket type garlic planter presented the most impressive results. The percentage of broken was very low, about 0.25 per cent. The new prototype garlic planter had 10 rows and was attached to 5 HP power tiller. The garlic planter was tested under actual field conditions at meeting district, Allahabad. The result indicated that the optimum width of garlic planter was 0.9 meter or 9 rows. The suitable soil conditionwas dry soil. Farmer should applywater after planting. Themaximumforward speed was 3 km/hr and wheel skid was high about 24.34 per cent. The average depth and width of planting was 2.65 cm. and 4.68 cm. Time for turning at head land was 39 seconds. The field capacity was 0.32 ha/hr and there were three operators. Hence, the capacity of planter was 0.84 ha./man/day.
Performance Evaluation And Optimization Of Steam Generating Systems
Author:C.S. Baladhiya And J.S. Doshi
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 222-227
Steam is widely used as heating medium for thermal processing of dairy and food products. Steam is produced in boiler using various types of fuels such as coal, fuel oil, natural gas, biogas etc. In the wake of the tremendous rise in fuel price and decline in the fuel supply in the recent year, there is a need of economizing the energy utilization. The efficient generation of steam depends mainly on regular monitoring of operating parameters such as combustion process, excess air control, water treatment, regular maintenance, monitoring of flue gas temperature etc. The knowledge of various parameters affecting the performance is a basic requirement for the optimization of the steam generating system. The automatic controls used in modern boilers have improve the efficiency of boiler by optimizing operating parameters required for efficient combustion process and to achieve safety in operation of fuels. Operation of boiler under optimum conditions not only helps in reducing the cost of steam generation but also helps in reducing the air pollution.
Osmotic Drying Of Pineapple
Author:Sanjeev Kumar And R.N. Shukla
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 215-221
: Osmotic dehydration in hot air drying of pineapple cubes by using sucrose solution is able to improve the quality like colour, aroma, texture, appearance as well as overall accepabilty. Regression equation is used to predict optimum condition for weight reduction, minimal solid gain, maximum water loss and physical properties of dehydrated pineapple cubes. Potassium metabisulphat is most useful for the browning inhibition. Osmotic and infrared dryings are reduced the water activity, which prevents the microbial growth. The dose of 1 kGy radiation is adversely effective in eliminating the residual microbial load on pineapple cubes, thus ensuring microbial safety of the product sensorial accepted during storage. When calcium is use as a component of osmotic solution in the osmotic dehydration of pineapple cubes. Then the calcium is responsible for increasing the mechanical properties, microbial stability and physico-chemical properties of pineapple slices. By using high density polyethylene film inhibits the moisture content of the products and minimal quality deterioration of dehydrated pineapple slices. HDPE film having high moisture barrier material caused minimal change in moisture content of samples, and hence, minimal quality deterioration of dried pineapple slices. Mostly laminated aluminium (Al) is not affected by the ambient storage temperature and suitable for preserving dehydrated pineapple slices. Alone blanching pre-treatment is not suitable for the drying of pineapple slices due to disintegration of negative impact and cell wall observed on the sensory quality. While Sulphiting pre-treatment protects the ascorbic acid from degradation and improved effective moisture transport. In sensory evaluation of pre-treated dehydrated pineapple slices is highly the acceptable. combination of pre-treatments of: 60 per cent sucrose/2500 ppm SO; 40 per cent sucrose/60°C blanching/2500 ppm SO; 60°C blanching/ 2500 ppm SO is suitable for production of dried pineapple slices. The application of different antibrowning agents can be used to prolong the shelf-life of fresh-cut pineapples. The predictions of water content and per cent charred pieces by quadratic surface models are validated with an additional drying experiment, and the use of such models to define multicriteria points of optimum. Drying rates and drying time of pineapple slices are affected by the blanching temperature-time combinations. Increasing the blanching temperature time combinations are increased drying times. The logarithmic model sufficiently describes the drying behaviour of blanched pineapple slices. The Fick?s diffusion model is suitable for the experimental results which enabled the determination of the effective moisture diffusivity.
Design And Development Of Portable Household Biogas Plant
Author:Jaya Sinha And S.K. Maurya
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 208-214
Energy is one of the prerequisites for the growth of agriculture and industry. The growing global awareness of the energy crises has brought us to the beginning of what might be called as the ?recycle revolution?. Biogas as an alternative source of energy has been widely recognized in a number of countries of the various alternative sources of energy. Biogas energy assumes a major role with special reference to the rural sector. Biogas is generated by anaerobic digestion using cow dung, methane content of the gas produced from the digestion of the cattle varied from 60 to 72 per cent, the remaining being carbon-dioxide. The feed material cow dung and kitchen waste selected for experimental study was analyzed for physical and chemical characteristics using standard procedure. A cylindrical shaped floating drum type biogas plant which gives constant gas pressure, less scum problem, higher gas production per cubic meter of digester volume and less leakage over fixed dome type plant. The biogas digesters work safely up to a pressure range of 0.05 kg/ cm2 (50 m bar). Hence, the pilot size biogas plant designed will operate safely. The pressure developed inside the gas holder was measured by using the Borden type pressure gauge (0-2 kg/cm2). The temperature of gas was measured by handheld thermometer (0- 1100 C). The cow dung, kitchen waste and water is mixed in definite proportions on weight basis to bring the total solid. The amount of gas produced in 24 hours was measured daily from gas holder till 40 days of experiment. The experimental result indicated that 6 to 8 per cent of digester volume added with inoculums before feeding the material increased the biogas production. It was noted that combination gas production from slurry combination was 350.99 liters in 2.08 size digester at the end of retention period of 56 days
Performance Evaluation Of Subsurface Drainage System In Upper Krishna Command
Author:Rahul Patil And P. Balakrishnan
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 202-207
The study was conducted in an area of 10.65 ha at Agricultural Research Station, Malnoor under UKP command during 2014. The drain discharge was observed with an weighted average discharge of mains was 0.50 mm d-1 and 0.44 mm d-1 in the laterals this magnitude could be categorized as low drain discharge and attributed to lower rate of hydraulic conductivity (0.067 m d-1) and sodic nature of the soil. The ionic composition of leachate was dominated by sodium, while the anionic concentration of leachate was dominated by chlorides and bicarbonates.The pH ranged from 7.10 to 9.10 in the outlets and 6.20 to 8.50 in the laterals and salinity of leachate with mean EC of 9.68 dS m-1 in collector mains and 9.44 dS m-1 in laterals implied that it was 9 to 14 times higher than the canal water (0.70 to 1.10 dS m-1) and not good for irrigation. Groundwater reaction was neutral with a mean pH of 7.64, while the mean salinity of groundwater was very high with the EC of 9.47 dS m-1 as compared to canal water. The total amount of salt removes was observed to be 3.22 and 5.20 t during the study period, This outgoing salt load over a period of time depending of cropping and irrigation practices would help in reducing the soil salinity and thereby facilitate restoration of soil production capabilities.
Performance Of Tractor Operated Seed Drill For Direct Seeding In Rice
Author:Narendra Haridas Tayade
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 199-201
The study was conducted to assess the performance of tractor operated seed drill for sowing of rice seeds at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Dantewada. The field tests were conducted on sandy soil. The treatments were random transplanting of seedling at 35 to 45 days with two hand weeding (T1) and direct drilling of rice seeds in friable soil condition by seed drill at the onset of monsoon with one hand weeding. The field capacity and average yield was found to be 0.46 ha/hr and 35.00 q/ha, respectively compared to 0.120 ha/hr and 29.90 q/ha observed in case of conventional method. The tractor operated seed drill was found to be better compared to conventional method of transplanting of paddy seedlings. The technology assessed better performance over farmers practice to reduce cost of cultivation and increase net profit.
Effect Of Spray Drying Conditions And Feed Composition On Sweet Orange Juice Powder
Author:H.S. Sathyashree And C.T. Ramachandra
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 191-198
The aim of this work was to study the influence of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration on functional properties, microstructure and heat utilization efficiency of sweet orange juice powder by spray drying. The inlet air temperature of 130, 140 and 150 °C and maltodextrin concentration of 6 per cent, 9 per cent and 12 per cent were chosen as independent variables to produce the spray dried sweet orange juice powder. The mean value of functional properties of spray dried sweet orange juice powder viz., flowability, cohesiveness, ascorbic acid and radical scavenging activity were 21.42-16.00, 1.19-1.25, 74.20-68.88 mg.100g-1and 21.54-23.19 mg.g-1, respectively, which were significantly affected (p<0.05) by inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. SEM analysis shown that surface was smooth with irregular shaped particles with complex link bridge. The heat utilization efficiency was done using MATLAB software. The maximum heat utilization efficiency (50.43%) of spray dryer was obtained at inlet air temperature of 130 °C with 9 per cent maltodextrin concentration.
Effect Of Planting Methods On Cane Yield, Water Productivity And Economics Of Spring Planted Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarum L.) In Ambala (Haryana)
Author:Guru Prem, Ramesh Kumar, Vikram D. Singh, Amit Kumar, Rakesh Choudhary And Afzal Ahmad
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 186-190
An experiment was conducted at farm of Krishi Vigyan Kendra-Ambala to assess the impact of different planting methods of sugarcane i.e. planting methods viz., T1-conventional planting (60 cm row spacing), T2-paired row trench plantation method (60:120 cm spacing) and T3- paired row ridge and furrow plantation method (100:120 cm spacing) on cane yield, water productivity and economics. The cane yield in conventional planting (T1) was 77.53 t ha-1, 82.50 t ha-1 in paired row trench plantation technique (T2), and 86.20 t ha-1 in paired row ridge and furrow plantation technique (T3), which was significantly higher in T3 than in (T1) and (T2). The water productivity was 2.82 in T1, 3.37 in T2 and 3.79 in T3, respectively. The gross return in farmer practice, paired row trench and modified paired row plantation method was 175150.00 Rs. ha-1, 186450 and 194812 Rs. ha-1, respectively. Simultaneously, the BCR was high in paired row trench plantation (2.70) and paired row ridge and furrow plantation method (2.90) than 2.30 in conventional planting.
Development Of Paddy Stripper Header Mechanism
Author:G.B. Bhanage, P.U. Shahare, V.V. Aware And J.S. Dekhale
Volume: 10 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 179-185
Stripping is the process of removing the seeds from the plant and straw remained anchored to the soil. The main advantages of stripping is the increasing capacity of the combine harvester with reduced amount of material other than grain ratio (MOG) and power requirement for threshing and cleaning which promotes to develop small and light weight mechanism suitable for small and fragmented land. A laboratory stripper header mechanism (SHM) was developed for stripping paddy grains and collecting them in grain tank. It consisted of stripping rotor, stripping elements, hood, frame and grain tank. Two profiles of stripping elements viz., slender arrow head (A) and spaced slender arrow head (B) of stripping elements were used. The performance of the developed SHM was evaluated on specially developed test rig to study the effect of two levels of forward speed (1.65 and 2.25 km/h) and four levels of peripheral speed (16.95, 19.78, 22.6 and 25.45 m/s) on shattered and un-stripped grain loss was studied. It consisted of track, platform and crop holders. SHM was stationary and platform was movable on track. Minimum shattered grain loss of 5.78 per cent was obtained with stripping element A at 2.25 km/h forward speed and at 19.78 m/s peripheral speed. Minimum un-stripped grain loss of 0.84 per cent was obtained with stripping element A at 2.25 km/h forward speed and 25.45 m/s peripheral speed. The performance of the slender arrow head stripping element was found to be better as compared to spaced slender arrow head.
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