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Agricultural and Biological Sciences >
International Journal of Forestry & Crop Improvement
Publisher:R. K. Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. S. B. Singh
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Physical And Mechanical Properties Of Particle Board Made From Lops And Tops Of Populus Deltoides And Broussonetia Papyifera
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 86-88
The present study was carried out with an objective to evaluate the density, moisture content, water absorption, general swelling, surface absorption, modulus of rupture, internal bonding and screw withdrawal strength of experimental Particle Board prepared from admixture (50:50) of Populus deltoides and Broussonetia papyifera. The Particle Boards were made with 8 per cent, 10 per cent and 12 per cent Phenol Formaldehyde resin and hot pressed at 21 kg/cm2 for 12 minute. The physical and mechanical properties of resulted Particle Board meet the requirement of Indian Standard specification IS: 3087 (1985). The swelling of board is slightly higher than the require Indian Standard specification (3087) which can be controlled by suitable treatment.
Traditional Beekeeping For The Restoration Of Degraded Agro Ecosystem Under Himalayan Conditions Of Jammu And Kashmir
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 78-85
Jammu and Kashmir constitutes one of the most important bee-keeping zones in India. The three essential principles for the success of an industry viz., availability of raw material, skilled labor and consumer demand of the product are fully met within the state. Kashmir particularly is known for its floral gaieties where numerous varieties are cultivated and wild plants bloom from early spring till late fall. This provides sufficient raw material (nectar and pollen) to the honey bees, for the production of honey and bees wax for commercial purposes. This industry is of considerable national importance. It provides gainful employment to the thousands of rural families and can provide extra income to unemployed youth. It does not compete with agriculture but is complimentary to it. It does not require costly equipments tools. Tools used in this industry are fabricated locally and are within the reach of common man with little financial support. The honey bee habit of nesting in the dark enabled man to keep it in indigenously designed hives ranging from clay pots, boxes, logs, wall recesses of old houses inserted in Kashmir. One successful design for culturing Apis Cerana which was carried through generations and has become an ancestral heritage of villagers and beekeepers in almost all parts of Kashmir. Our state has plentiful bee flora in its natural endowment. The potential and success in beekeeping development is dependent on the quality and quantity of bees and bee flora available and the technology used. The necessary interventions are required at improving the efficiency and productivity of traditional methods, focusing on aspects of partial harvesting, such as leaving the brood-combs and taking only the honey comb.As per government census 2500 bee keepers registered with J&K?s Apiculture department. Kashmir have a potential to sustain one lakh bee colonies. On average, a colony produces 15 kilograms of honey and thus we have a potential to produce 15000 quintals of honey every year. Economic efficiency of Apis cerana (indigenous beekeeping) can prove more efficient then Apis mellifera and the local bees work in low temperatures as well so beekeeping with Apis cerana should be encouraged for rural households with low investment capacity.
Indigenous Knowledge In Traditional Agroforestry Systems Of Kashmir Valley: Current Challenges And Future Opportunities
Author:M.A. Islam,K.N. Qaisar Andg.M. Bhat
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 68-77
The traditional agroforestry systems have gained wider attention in the international agreements and among academicians and policy makers for their multifunctional role and dynamics of ecosystem services. The multifunctional traditional agroforestry systems support substantial ecosystem services and livelihoods to the rural communities in Kashmir. They are considered to be adaptive to the climate change situations and serve as efficient means to carbon sinks. Due to the remarkable significance of traditional agroforestry systems in the valley ecosystem, environment and livelihood, the systems have been considered as a promising land use pattern in the valley. With climate change rapidly impacting both ecosystems and services in the valley, the sustainability of dynamic traditional agroforestry systems is now facing new challenges and vulnerabilities. Indigenous knowledge on traditional agroforestry is an integral part of the culture and history of the local communities which offer opportunities for sustainable management of resources and support socio-ecological and socio-economic benefits. The indigenous knowledge on agroforestry needs to be further strengthened through research and development to achieve the goals of sustainable development.
Weed Management Practices In Zaid Urdbean Under Different Sowing Dates
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 62-67
An experiment was conducted during two consecutive years of Zaid 2008 and 2009 at Agricultural Research Station, Borwat Farm, Banswara to find out optimum sowing date and suitable herbicide for weed management in Zaid urdbean under Humid Southern Plain Zone of Rajasthan. Results revealed that the maximum seed yield (961 kg/ha), net return (Rs. 23848/ - ha-1) and B: C (1.45) was observed under sowing of urdbean on 15th March over sowing of urdbean on 5thand 15th April, respectively. However, it was found at par withsowing of urdbean on 25th March seed yield (924 kg/ha), net return (Rs. 22769/- ha- 1) and B: C (1.42). In weed management, application of Fluchloralin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha PPI gave significantly higher seed yield (918 kg/ha) net return (Rs. 21888/- ha-1) and B:C (1.33) over weedy check (control), but it was found at par with application of Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha PE and weed free in the pooled analysis. Sowing of urdbean under different dates, the weed population m-2, weed dry matter accumulation (g m-2) and weed control efficiency at 30 DAS were found not significant with each other during both the years as well as in the pooled analysis. Application of Fluchloralin @ 0.75 kg a.i. /ha PPI gave significantly higher weed control efficiency (51.80 %), lowest weed population (13.40 m-2) and weed dry matter accumulation (15.57 g m-2) at 30 DAS over weedy check (control), but it was found at par with the application of Pendimethalin @ 0.75 kg a.i./ha PE and weed free in the pooled analysis.
Productivity Studies In Marihal Bamboo (Oxytenanthera Stocksii) Under Agroforestry System
Author:H.Y. Patiland S.M. Mutanal
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 58-61
An experiment was conducted to know the performance of marihal bamboo (Oxytenanthera stocksii) under Agroforestry system in rainfed conditions during 1999 -2006 on red gravelly soils of Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The bamboo was planted in three spacings viz., S1 ? 4x2m, S2 ? 4 x 3m, S3 ? 4x4m, S4 ? 4 x 5m and S5 ? Field crop. Sesamum crop was grown for four years. At the end of 2006-07, bamboo culm height and diameter were significantly higher in spacing of 4 x 5 m as compared to 4 x 2 m. Harvestable culms and gross return were higher in wider spacing (4x5m) as compared to narrow spacing (4 x 2m). The sesamum grain yields were higher in wider spacing than narrow spacing.
Diversity For Tree Vigour In The Natural Population Of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) In The Kashmir Valley
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 53-57
The present investigation entitled diversity for tree vigour in the natural population of walnut (Juglans regia L.) in the Kashmir valley was carried out in order to document the available genetic variability in walnut germplasm and to select elite walnut genotypes possessing superior attributes and quality traits. During the survey, data was recorded on one hundred fifty two (152) walnut trees growing in different areas of Kashmir valley. Remarkable variability was observed in seedling walnut trees for different morphological, nut and kernel characters. Similarly, variations were also reported for other characters viz., tree vigour, growth habit, branching habit, leaflet shape, shoot colour, nut shape, shell texture, shell colour, shell seal, shell strength, shell integrity, kernel shrivel and kernel colour. Studies on tree vigour revealed substantial variability among the seedling raised walnuts genotypes in Kashmir valley. Tree vigour ranged from low to high. Out of 152 genotypes 43 genotypes (28.30%) possessed low tree vigour, 45 genotypes (29.60%) were intermediate and 64 genotypes (42.10%) exhibited high tree vigour.
Performance Of Inter Specific Cotton Hybrids Under Various Plant Geometries And Nutrient Levels
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 49-52
Field experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Borwat Farm, Banswara during Kharif -2010 to find out the optimum plant geometry and fertility levels for inter specific cotton hybrids with three cotton hybrids (JKCHB- 214,RAHB-170 and DCH-32), two plant geometries (90 x 60 and 90 x 45 cm) and three fertility levels (75,100 and 125 % RDF). Sowing of JKCHB-214 cotton hybrid gave significantly higher seed cotton yield (1558 kg ha-1) over DCH-32 cotton hybrid. The maximum seed cotton yield (1754 kg ha-1) was observed under wider plant geometry of 90 x 60 cm than closer plant geometry of 90 x 45 cm. Though, yield attributing parameters such as bolls plant-1 and boll weight were statically improved in wider as compared to closer spacing it could be increase the seed cotton yield. Among fertility levels, similar seed cotton yield was recorded with the application of 100 per cent RDF (1555 kg ha-1) and 125 per cent RDF (1602 kg ha-1) but both were significantly better than that of 75 per cent RDF and plant geometry 90 x 60 cm seemed to be ideal for inter specific hybrid cotton for realizing higher productivity under the specific agro climatic zone IV b of Rajasthan.
Role Of Farmers Knowledge, Experience And Decision Making At Farm Level Agroforestry: Why Do Farmers Adopt Agroforestry Or Not?
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 41-48
A farmer?s decision to engage with agroforestry practices further depends upon personal vision about knowledge and experience about land use options and especially on the agricultural practices. Several studies have been carried out to gain insight into the adoption of agroforestry in Indian sub continent. But very less have shown light on knowledge, experience and decision making of farmers to adopt or not to adopt agroforestry. To evaluate this, a survey was conducted on the present conditions of farmlands and farmers households in Haridwar, India. Objectives of the study were to access farmers? knowledge, experience, their decision making, and role of women in the process and activities at farm level. Responses from 426 farm households containing both agroforestry and non-agroforestry farmers were recorded and than analyzed to compare above said objectives. Results shown that level of farming experience were more in agroforestry farmers than the non agroforestry farmers. Non-agroforestry farmers were having lesser medium (32.79%) and sufficient (52.46%) level of farming experience than the agroforestry adopters (36.44% for medium and and 60.27% for sufficient level, respectively). Average and sufficient level of knowledge was also reported higher in adopters. The study concludes that farming experience, decision making process and agroforestry experience are at higher level in agroforestry farmers than that of non-agroforestry farmers. However, the inferior status of women in family as they don?t have much chances or right to take decisions at farm level which is important aspect in agroforestry hence need to be improved.
New Finding Of The Phoma Leaf Spot Of The Varnish Tree (Koelreuteria Paniculata) In Himachal Pradesh
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 38-40
A new foliar disease of Koelreuteria paniculata tree is reported during continuous surveys conducted at Solan district of Himachal Pradesh during August, 2015 to December, 2015. On the basis of morphological characteristics the fungus, the fungus was identified as Phoma eupyrena which produces symptoms on the leaves as numerous small, pale, irregular spots which are light brown with dark black margins and blightening appearance at the apex region initially. Phoma eupyrena form pycnidia, whose range varied between 240-250 μm in diameter and conidia are hyaline, short, cylindrical, mostly straight and unicellular. Conidial size ranged between 3-6 x1.5-3 μm.
Diversity For Branching Habit In The Natural Population Of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) In The Kashmir Valley
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1-2017 | Pagination: 34-37
The present investigation entitled diversity for growth habit in the natural population of walnut (Juglans regia L.) in the Kashmir valley was carried out in order to document the available genetic variability in walnut germplasm and to select elite walnut genotypes possessing superior attributes and quality traits. During the survey, data was recorded on one hundred fifty two (152) walnut trees growing in different areas of Kashmir valley. Remarkable variability was observed in seedling walnut trees for different morphological, nut and kernel characters. Similarly, variations were also reported for other characters viz., tree vigour, growth habit, branching habit, leaflet shape, shoot colour, nut shape, shell texture, shell colour, shell seal, shell strength, shell integrity, kernel shrivel and kernel colour. Studies on .branching habit revealed substantial variability among the seedling raised walnuts genotypes in Kashmir valley. In this study it was found that 30 genotypes (19.73%) possessed sparse branching habit, 57 genotypes (37.50%) exhibited intermediate branching habit and 65 genotypes (42.77%) had dense branching habit.
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