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Engineering and Technology in India
Publisher:Rakesh Kumar Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. R. D. Singh
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Circular Antennauwb Microstrip Line Feeding Planar Modified
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 103-107
In this paper we have investigated compact printed semicircular disc monopole antenna, which is basically printed microstrip antenna with etched ground plane for UWB applications. In particular we have simulated very compact semicircular disc monopole antennas for UWB communication. Simple rectangular microstrip line is used for feeding the printed monopole antenna and its frequency bandwidth under -10dB return loss is ranging from 3GHz to 11.6 GHz. This compact printed monopole antenna works well for the whole UWB frequency band 3.1-10.6GHz.
Electronic Tongue And Their Applications In Food Industry
Author:Bhupinder Singh And Priyanka Handa
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 98-102
Technology?s impact on food safety and quality is reflected in higher throughputs, increased efficiencies and superior outcomes. Electronic tongue (e-tongue) instrumental systems were designed to minimize human olfactory and taste sensory organs and are consisted of an array of sensors. Various efforts have been made by scientists to predict the sensory profile of food articles with instrumental measurement. The aim of the review here is to determine the applicability of e-tongue in food industry to replace traditional methods of sensory analysis. Involvement of electronics methods for the improvement of sensory methods is due to increased attention of all world towards food safety.
Performance Evaluation Of An Animal Drawn Manure Spreader Cum Cart
Author:S. T. Patil And P. A. Munde
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 80-92
Indian soils are poor in nitrogen. Nearly 1/3 rd of Indian soils are acidic. Food shortage in 1960s necessitated green revolution, ushering in the use of high dose of chemical fertilizers and poisonous plant protection chemicals adversely affecting the health of the soil. But long term use of these fertilizers causes degradation of soil, compaction and reduces soil fertility. Organic manures when incorporated into the soil it add nutrients it. Application of FYM improves soil fertility. Therefore, there is wide scope to its application. FYM contains almost all the essential nutrient required for soil. The addition of farm yard manure to the field is carried out traditionally. So there is scope of work to distribute the farm yard manure uniformly on the soil surface. By considering these aspects, an animal drawn manure spreader cum cart with electricity generation unit was design and fabricated.The research work and testing was undertaken at the site of the AICRP on UAE CAET, V.N.M.K.V., Parbhani.The developed Manure spreader consist a chassis having two iron wheels, axel assembly, bearing, flat type agitator, peg tooth agitator, body frame for mounting the trapezoidal shaped manure box, hitching system and tool box.The application rate of manure varies from 2.46 to 10.06 t/ha for varies in opining area of cover 0.04 m2 to 0.16m2. The co-efficient of variation of uniformity for manure distribution varied from 18 -20 per cent. The designed manure spreader cum cart gave desired manure application rate (9 ? 10t/ha) at an opining area of cover 0.16m2at the operational speed of 2.63km/hr and draft required was 637 N. The draft and power requirement of manure spreader were 637 N and 0.46 kW, respectively within the draft ability limit of pair of bullock.The field capacity and field efficiency of machine were 0.21 ha/hrand 84 per cent at operational speed 2.51 km/hr.The manure spreader cum cart was used for carting with 500 kg load on Tar road and Kaccha road by Red Kandhari bullocks. The draft observed for Tar road with no load and 500 kg load conditions by Red Kandhari bullocks was 37 and 41 kg. respectively. The draft observed on Kaccha road for no load and 500 kg load conditions was 40 and 48 kg, respectively by Red Kandhari bullocks. Speed observed on Tar road for no load and 500 kg load conditions by RK bullock was 4.29 and 3.88 km/hr, respectively. The speed on Kaccha road was 4.04 and 3.48 km/hr, respectively. Power observed for no load and 500 kg load conditions was 0.40 and 0.43, respectively for RK bullock on tar road. And 0.43 and 0.48 Kw for no load and 500 kg load conditions, respectively on Kaccha road for RK bullock. The increased respiration rate and pulse rate was observed after 2 hrs continuous work on tar and Kaccha road is within the safe limit of fatigue score.
Re-Engineering Rural Farmers For Sustainable Agricultural Food Production For Diversifying Economy In Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Author:E. I. Ogba And J. U. Ndem
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 74-79
The gradual decline and short fallen in agricultural food production as demanded by large population in Nigeria and subsequent failure on the price of crude oil prompted this study to diversify the Nigeria economy, through agricultural production by Reengineering rural farmers. The population of the study was 402 rural farmers in the three agricultural zones in Ebonyi State. 195 rural farmers were randomly selected, as the sample size for the study. The instrument for data collection was Re-engineering rural farmers for sustainable agricultural food production for diversifying, Nigeria economy questionnaire (RRFSAFPDNEQ).The instrument was validated by 3 experts two in agricultural education unit in Department of Technology and Vocational Education,one in measurementand Evaluation in Department of Science Education,in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki.Crownback alpha, reliability co-efficient was used to test the internal consistency of the Instrument, which yielded 0.86. The instrument was administered to the respondents with the help of 3 research assistant, one in each agricultural zone, mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. Findings of the studyreveals (1) That, ecological factors favours agricultural crop production in the state. (2) That machinaries for agricultural food crop mechanization are not available for farmers to use in farming activities. (3)That farmer?s sources for financing, their, farm is mainly on personal saves.Among the recommendation made was that farmers need to be assisted in the areas of irrigation to encourage them in dry season farming.
Mechanical Properties Of Areca Nut
Author:S. P. Divekar And A. D. Rane
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 71-73
India produced 7,43, 220 tones of areca nut (Areca catechu L.) from 44,5000 ha during the year 2014-15 (APEDA). Areca nut is an important component of the religious, social and cultural celebrations and economic life of people in India. Areca nut is also used in ayurvedic and veterinary medicines. The edible part of arecanut is its kernel. The kernel is well protected inside a fibrous husk. This husk needs to be removed while obtaining the kernel. Being fibrous nature of the husk, it is difficult to de-husk. Hence, it was necessary to find out the force required for pierce the husk. It was observed that the average force required to break wet arecanut (freshly harvested) was 11.20 KN. Whereas the average force required to break dried arecanut was 10.62 KN.
Development Of Decision Support System For Land Suitability Evaluations For Crops Using Icttools
Author:Gautam Dadhich, Parul R. Patel, M.H. Kalubarme And Manoj Pandya
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 65-70
Agricultural sector is the most important sector for Indian economy, as majority of Indian population is engaged in agricultural occupation. The demand of food in India has increased because of rapid growth of population in recent. The land is either over used or under used without considering its potential and constraints for growing crops in India. This consequence brings a set of different problems like under agriculture production, land degradation, land use conflicts, etc. Population of the India is growing dramatically so farming community has to produce more in order to meet the growing demand of food under limited land recourses. Choosing the most suitable crop to be cultivated for high agricultural production is most difficult task for farmers. To produce more crop, selection of crop for particular land is very difficult task for farmers. Number of factors like climate, soil, topograpy, moisture and nutrient availability, rooting conditions and soil toxicity make farmer?s task further tough. Therefore, an attempt has been made to develop a decision making tool for farmers to select the appropriate crop for their land. National Bureau of Soil Survey Land Use Planning (NBSS-LUP) Criteria and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique is used to develop this tool. The interface engine of formulated tool has been developed using Microsoft Visual Basic.NET programming language. This tool helps in classifying crops in four suitability classes viz. highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable and not suitable according to NBSS-LUP criteria. The system covers 46 varieties of crops covering Cereals, Pulses, Oil seeds, Fibre crops, Commercial crops, Plantation crops, Fruit crops, Medicinal and Aromatic plants and Spices. It is proposed to facilitate farmers for selecting crops as per availability of local climatic condition and soil fertility.
Performance Evaluation Of The Products Of Different Drip Irrigation Companies
Author:V. L. Pawar And V. D. Paradkar
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 58-64
The research was carried out at Puriya Park Farm, K. K. Wagh College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Nashik, in October 2014. The performance of drip products manufactured by different companies viz., Company A, Company B and Company C was evaluated. Two NPC emitters of 4 lph and 8 lph were tested at operating pressure ranging from 0.5 to1.25 kg/ cm2 and one PC emitter of 4 lph discharge was tested at same operating pressure range. Also, the emission uniformity (EU) and co-efficient of uniformity (CU) of drip system was worked out. In 4 lph and 8 lph NPC drippers manufactured by Company A, discharge variation with respect to pressure was less as compare to standard discharge values of Company B and Company C. In 4 lph PC drippers manufactured by Company B, discharge variation with respect to pressure was very less as compared to standard discharge values of Company A and Company C.
Environmentally Sustainable Sand Mining Based Ongis Based Sediment Yield Estimation
Author:Shrikant Ojha And Sangeeta Choudhary
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 49-57
Rampant urbanization, which happens to be the major cause for sand demand is responsible for unsustainable extraction of sand from dried and sometimes even wet river beds. Demand for sand from construction sector in India is expected to grow from 630 million tonne in 2014 to 1.4 billion tonne in 2020 (material usage report). Out of different sources like, river sand, ocean sand, dessert sand, manufactured sand, the river sand is most preferred because of mineralogical properties and grain structure, easy local availability and low cost. This has led to rampant, regulated and unregulated, sand mining in most of the reservoirs and river beds. Though removal of sand/sediments from riverbeds and reservoir beds is essential to prevent shallowing and consequent widening of river bed and reduction of capacity of reservoir. In absence of yield estimation models sand mining leases are allotted where amount of sand mined is decided as 3m from river or 1 m above water table, whichever is less. This may not be environmentally sustainable and may lead of medium to long term changes in riverbed profile and consequent negative environmental impact.
Mathematical Modeling Of Moisture Loss, Oil Uptake And Colour Kinetics During Deep Fat Frying Of Onion Slices
Author:D. Ramesh Babu
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 39-48
Effects of frying temperature, frying time and pre-fry-drying time on kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during frying were studied. Colour development during frying were also measured in terms of Hunter L, a, b parameters. Onion slices of 3 mm thickness were used for frying at 135, 150 and 165oC. The experimental data on moisture loss and oil uptake were fitted to a first order exponential model and kinetic co-efficients for mass transfer were calculated. Kinetic co-efficients were found to increase from 0.595 - 0.803 min-1 for moisture loss and from 0.38 - 0.563 min-1 for oil uptake with increase in frying temperature. Temperature dependence of kinetic co-efficients for moisture loss and oil uptake values were described by Arhenious type equation with activation energies of 1.88 x 103 KJ/kg mol for moisture loss and 2.3 x 103 KJ/kg mol for oil uptake, respectively. As the pre-frydrying time increased from 0 to 60 min, kinetic co-efficients were found to decrease from 0.71 to 0.617 min-1 for moisture loss and 0.442 to 0.326 min-1 for oil uptake. 60 minutes pre-drying reduced the oil content by 22.88 per cent. The mathematical modeling of colour parameters with respect to time and of frying and pre-fry drying time shown best fit with polynomial equation of third order. Two distinct periods (colour development and degradation) of colour changes observed as indicated by Hunter a and b values. During colour development period Hunter a and b values increased with temperature indicating golden surface colour.
Performance And Evaluation Of Laser Land Leveler With Conventional Method In Allahabad
Author:Prashant Kumar, Prashant Singh And Rahul Kumar Yadav
Volume: 8 | Issue no: 1&2-2017 | Pagination: 35-38
Land development is the prime components of precision forming. Unevenness of fields leads to in sufficient use of irrigation water. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of laser land with conventional method was conducted at Champatpur in Allahabad region. The performance evaluation was done on the basis of actual field capacity, field efficiency, fuel consumption, cost of operation and leveling index with that of conventional method to prove the effectiveness. The operating average speed was varying from 1.5 to 2.50 kmph to evaluate the variables. A comparative evaluation of the laser land leveler with conventional method of leveling showed that the percentage reduction in standard deviation of reduced level, before and after leveling was 85.7 per cent for laser leveler and 46.79 per cent for conventional method, which was 38.91 per cent lower than the laser leveler. From the results of contours analysis, it was observe that considerably higher accuracy of grading was obtained when fields were graded by use of the laser leveler. The field capacity cost of operation for lesar leveler were 0.126 ha/h and Rs. 804.20 ha-1, respectively i.e. they were 0.18 ha/h and Rs. 690.24 for conventional leveler, respectively. The cost of leveling per hectare was Rs. 6382.57 and Rs. 3834.67 for laser leveler and conventional leveling.
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