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Agricultural and Biological Sciences >
International Journal of Plant Sciences
Publisher:R. K. Singh
Editor in chief:Dr. Veena Gupta
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A Review On Biogeochemical Linkages Of Climate Change And Change In Intensity Of Ultra Violet Radiation
Author:Soumya Kumar Sahoo, Jyostnarani Pradhan, V.B. Kuruwanshi And Arti Guhey
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 321-326
Changes in climate and intensity of ultraviolet radiation can both have substantial impacts on the biological, geological, chemical, and physical processes that control the exchange of matter and energy between the major components of the environment ? the atmosphere, the biosphere, the hydrosphere, and the lithosphere. The carbon cycle is of central importance in the climate change issue because human disruption of the natural carbon cycle, through the burning of fossil fuels and the clearing of forests, is largely responsible for the modern increase in atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas. One of the more important links in the carbon cycle from an atmospheric perspective is the so-called ?marine biological pump?. This is a process in which plankton, the microscopic plants and animals that live near the surface of the oceans and freshwater lakes remove carbon from the air and then transfer it to the ocean bottoms and lakebeds when they die. Ozone depletion, particularly severe episodes such as the spring ozone holes in the Antarctic, present a potentially serious threat to this process, because plankton cannot take shelter from solar radiation. A serious decline in their numbers as a result of exposure to more intense ultraviolet radiation could therefore decrease the rate at which carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere. Similarly, biological changes initiated by changes in climate might have some effect on ozone depletion. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide are two ozone-depleting compounds. However, because natural sources of these gases are larger than the human industrial sources, anything affecting the ecosystems and natural processes that produce these gases could also have consequences for the ozone layer. Coastal marshes appear to be important contributors of natural source. Fungi, crops such as rapeseed, and soils rich in organic matter are also thought to be substantial sources. Warming of the atmosphere and oceans or changes in sea level could affect all of these sources by altering the ecosystems and climatic conditions that support the natural production of these gases. Climate change could also affect the rate at which these gases are removed from the atmosphere by the oceans. Studies of the natural production and removal of these gases are still in their early stages, however, and it is not yet possible to predict how climate change might affect the quantities of these gases in the atmosphere.
Effect Of Drought And Saline Stress On Seed Quality
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 314-320
Seed germination and seedling establishment are the critical stages for all the plants. Insufficient seed germination and seedling emergence under abiotic stress conditions are the main constraints in the production of crops. These abiotic stresses particularly during seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages will certainly affect the crops and drastically reduce not only the seed yield but also the quality of seeds. In this review, an attempt has been made to present the available literature on effect of drought and saline stress in important crops.
Positive Impact Of Abiotic Stress On Medicinal And Aromatic Plants
Author:J. Pradhan, S.K. Sahoo, S. Lalotra And R.S. Sarma
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 309-313
Abiotic stress is the imbalance in the environmental status that affects the normal growth, development and reproduction of an organism. Various abiotic stresses are drought, salinity, heat, flood, reactive oxygen species etc. Generally stress cause reduction in quality and quantity of yield in agricultural crops. But in case of medicinal and aromatic plant it has been found to enhance both qualitative and quantitative yield. In this article we are going to understand the mechanism that will change our view towards abiotic stresses.
Phenotypic Variability In The Shape Of Nuts Recorded In The Seedling Raised Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) Population In The Kashmir Valley
Author:Imtiyaz Ahmad Lone
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 302-308
The present investigation entitled phenotypic variability in the nut shape in the seedling raised natural population of walnut (J. regia) in the Kashmir valley was carried out in order to document the available genetic variability in walnut germplasm and to select elite walnut genotypes possessing superior attributes and quality traits. During the survey, data was recorded on one hundred fifty two (152) walnut trees growing in different areas of Kashmir valley. Remarkable variability was observed in seedling walnut trees for different morphological, nut and kernel characters. Similarly, variations were also reported for other characters viz., tree vigour, growth habit, branching habit, leaflet shape, shoot colour, nut shape, shell texture, shell colour, shell seal, shell strength, shell integrity, kernel shrivel and kernel colour. Studies on nut shape revealed nut shape varied from round to cordate. Majority of the genotypes (56) that represented 36.85 per cent population had round nut shape followed by 36 genotypes (23.69%) that had ovate nut shape; 8 genotypes (5.27%) had triangular nut shape; 10 genotypes (6.58%) had broad ovate nut shape; 7 genotypes (4.60%) had short trapezoid nut shape, 3 genotypes (1.97%) had long trapezoid nut shape, 16 genotypes (10.52%) had broad elliptic nut shape and the remaining 13 genotypes (8.55%) had elliptic nut shape.
Combining Ability Analysis In Chickpea (Cicer Arietinum L.)
Author:S.B. Sarode And G.P. Nagargoje
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 299-301
In this study, three females were crossed with five male parents and fifteen hybrids were developed. These fifteen hybrids along with their parental lines and check viz., BDNG 797 were grown during Rabi season of 2014. The parental line BDNGK 798 exhibited high GCA effect for plant height and 100 seed weight, Vijay for number of primary and secondary branches per plant, Digvijay for number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant. The cross BDNGK 798 x SAKI 9516 recorded high significant and desirable SCA effect for number of pods per plant and seed yield per plant and the cross BDNGK 9-3 x ICC 14871 for seed yield per plant.
Genetic Correlation Under Diverse Environments In Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.)
Author:L.G. Vanpariya, M.S. Pithia, R.M. Javia And A.G. Pansuriya
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 294-298
F2 generation of eight crosses of bread wheat were grown under timely and late sowing conditions to study the genetic correlation for grain yield and its components. Under timely sowing, negative and significant association with grain yield per plant was found in hybrid RWP 2002-2 x LOK-1 for days to heading, in GW 9715 x K 9102 for days to maturity and in AKAW 2862-2 x MACS 2496 for plant height. However, significant and positive relationship was displayed between grain yield per plant with number of effective tillers per plant in all the crosses except crosses CLN 5 x GW 322 and GW 9715 x K 9102. Positive and significant association of grain yield per plant with biological yield per plant and harvest index was observed in all the crosses except cross 3 and crosses 3 and 7, respectively. In case of late sowing, significant and negative genetic association for developmental traits was found for days to maturity in cross RWP 2002-2 x LOK 1 and for plant height in AKAW 2862-1 x MACS 2496, CLN 1 x GW 273 and P 11616 x PBW 524. While positive and significant association of grain yield per plant with number of effective tillers per plant, length of main spike, number of grains per spike, grain filling period and biological yield per plant was observed in all the crosses except cross 3 for length of main spike and cross 2 for number of grains per spike under late sowing. Above said yield contributing characters are useful for the indirect selection for the improvement of grain yield per plant under respective environment in bread wheat.
Study Of Heritability Gene Action And Combining Ability Using Cms Line In Hybrid Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)
Author:Sujeet Kumar And Alok Kumar Singh
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 282-293
Low heritability ( 2 hns ) estimate was observed with grain yield plant-1 and test weight indicating preponderance of nonadditive gene action to govern these traits. Combining ability revealed higher specific combining ability variance than their respective general combining ability variances indicating the predominance of non-additive gene effects indicated relevance of heterosis breeding for improving the yield and yield contributing attributes. Among the testers high gca was recorded in Sarjoo 52 and Narendra Usar 3 for harvest index, grain yield plant-1,days to 50% flowering (earliness), plant height (dwarf stature), panicle bearing tillers plant-1 and biological yield. Among the female parental lines, IR 58025 was observed as a good general combiner only for seedling height, panicle length, spikelets panicle-1, test weight, biological yield palnt-1. Cross between IR 688897A X Sarjoo 52 , IR 58025 A X 21-2-5-B-1-1, IR 58025 A X Narendra Usar 3 and IR 58025 A X IR 71829-3R-73-1-2-B shown favorable per se performances and higher significant positive sca effects in related to grain yield plant-1. These combinations proved to be good hybrids based on CMS system in rice.
Evaluation Of Morpho-Physiological Attributes Of Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum) Genotypes Under Different Water Regimes
Author:Jyoti Chauhan, Bajrang Lal Kakralya And Rajesh Kumar Singhal
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 271-281
Drought is one of the major environmental constraints for the agriculture crop worldwide and overcome of yield penalty under drought situations, is the major goal for agriculturist in future. To achieve this goal, screenings of landraces is one of the most important genetic resources for crops improvement especially in dry areas. The present study was carried out during 2015-2016, in order to evaluate drought tolerance in eight fenugreek genotypes, under both control and drought conditions, various parameters were recorded at flowering and pod formation stage. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design and replicated thrice. Physiological and biochemical parameters viz., plant height,relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, carotenoids content, membrane stability index (MSI) and proline content were used to assess drought tolerance in fenugreek genotypes. Ranking of genotypes based on SY at both flowering and pod formation stage showed that Rmt-1 and Rmt-305 variety has the highest SY among the tested genotypes under control and drought condition. Among the observed parameters all parameters had positive correlations with SY except proline content and recommended for screening of susceptible and tolerant fenugreek genotypes for drought stress.
Chemical Management Of Alternaria Leaf Blight Of Bt Cotton
Author:G.H. Anil, S.A. Ashtaputre And M.S.L. Rao
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 267-270
Field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad Farm for evaluation of different fungicides against Alternaria leaf blight of cotton. Fungicides viz., Hexaconazole (0.1%), Tebuconazole (0.1%), Propiconazole (0.1%), Difenconazole (0.1%), Penconazole (0.1%), Propineb (0.2%), Chlorothalonil (0.2%), Carbendazim (0.1%), Mancozeb (0.2%) were sprayed after initiation of disease infection, three sprays were taken with 20 days interval and per cent disease index (PDI) was calculated after final spray. Propineb (0.2%) was effective in controlling disease with per cent disease control of 76.09 followed by Difenconazole @ 0.1% with 66.96 control.
Performance Of Bt Cotton Hybrids Under Various Crop Geometries And Nutrient Levels In Humid Southern Plain Zone Of Rajasthan
Author:Harphool Meena, P.K.P. Meena And Bheru Lal Kumhar
Volume: 12 | Issue no: 2-2017 | Pagination: 262-266
A field experiment comprised of three Bt hybrids (Leo cott, Paras Brahma and Jai Bt) with two plant geometries (90 x 45 cm and 90 x 60 cm ) and three levels of NPK (100% RDF,125% RDF and 150% RDF) was conducted during Kharif 2012 and 2013 at ARS, Banswara in Split Plot Design with four replications. The Bt hybrid of Leo cott gave higher seed cotton yield (2242 kg ha-1) as compared to Jai Bt and Paras Brahma (1809 and1755 kg ha-1), respectively. The closer spacing 90 x 45 cm was recorded significantly higher seed cotton yield (2240 kg ha-1) over 90 x 60 cm (1752 kg ha-1). Increasing levels of fertilizer from 100% RDF to150% RDF of NPK ha-1 significantly increase seed cotton. Application of 125 % RDF gave significantly higher seed cotton yield (2249 kg ha-1) over 100% RDF (1815 kg ha-1), but it was found at par with application of 150% RDF (2304 kg ha-1) in the pooled analysis.
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