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Immunology and Microbiology >
International Journal of Medical Microbiology and Tropical Diseases
Editor in chief:Dr. Muktikesh Dash
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Primary Tuberculosis Of Appendix: A Rare Presentation
Author:Motilal Bunkar, Rajendra Prasad Takhar, Arya Savita, Kiran Mirdha
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 115-117
Gastrointestinal tuberculosis is a common form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the appendix is a rare variant of gastrointestinal tuberculosis even in countries where tuberculosis is endemic like India; however, it should be included as one of the differential diagnosis of appendicular swelling as its clinical presentation mimicking various other conditions e.g. acute on chronic appendicitis, appendicular malignancy or abscess. The majority of the previously reported cases of tubercular appendicitis had a primary focus elsewhere in the body. Here we are describing a case of isolated tuberculosis of the appendix, who underwent laparotomy with the suspicion of appendicitis. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination of the resected specimen. No primary focus was found in elsewhere in the body. He was treated with four drug anti-TB regimen (2HERZ+4HR) and was asymptomatic in full course of therapy and later also till six months of follow up. Apart from rarity due to primary involvement, this case report highlights the rare clinical presentation and significance of histopathology in the diagnosis of this uncommon entity.
Meiloidosis: Emerging Infection In Northern Sri Lanka
Author:S. Pirasath, G. Selvaratnam, T, Kumanan, J. Pradeepan, F. Nasmiya
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 112-114
Melioidosis is an emerging infection, causing severe septicaemic illness to chronic infection, with a high mortality and morbidity. It is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative, oxidase positive bacillus. The first case of melioidosis was reported in a European tea broker in 1927 in Sri Lanka. Here we report two cases of melioidosis causing septic arthritis and pneumonia in old aged diabetic woman and multiple hepatic and lung abscesses in middle aged diabetic woman in Jaffna district
Clinical Spectrum And Outcome Of Severe Malaria In Pediatric Age Group In North-West Part Of Rajasthan
Author:Niranjan Nagaraj, Pramod Kumar Berwal, Monika Sharma
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 107-111
Background: Malaria is a Life- threatening blood disease caused by parasites and influenced the human population and human history to a great extent. This study aims to describe the clinical spectrum, outcome of severe Malaria and compare the severity of plasmodium species. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Department of Pediatrics, PBM and Associated Group of Hospitals, Bikaner from June 2012 to December 2012. Only those patients having severe malaria as per WHO 2010 guidelines were included in this study. The diagnosis was made by peripheral blood examination &/or RDT. Results: 30.37% (130 patients) were categorized as severe malaria according to WHO guidelines. Maximum cases of severe malaria 53.07% presented in 0-5 year age group. The preponderance of male sex in all species of severe malaria. The major complication encountered in severe malaria was severe anemia (78.5%). Plsmodium falciparum infection was found to be more serious to cause significant mortality as comparison to Plasmodiium vivax infection and mixed infection. Conclusion: we should further give a second thought before labelling P.vivax as benign infection and should consider the chances of complications seriously in P.vivax because it has greater burden in society
Seroprevalence Of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen In Patients Attending A Tertiary Care Hospital Valsad, South Gujarat, India
Author:Parimal H. Patel, Alka B. Nerurkar, Mehul R. Patel
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 103-106
Introduction: Hepatitis B is contagious liver disease due to infection caused by Hepatitis B virus; it is spread by blood, semen or other body fluids of infected person by inoculation. Hepatitis B virus infection is widespread occurring worldwide with more than one third of the world?s population being affected. India is considered to have an intermediate (2-7%) level of hepatitis B virus infection endemicity. Every year, one million Indians are at risk for hepatitis B virus infection and about 100,000 die from it. Aim of the study was to determine prevalence of Hepatitis B virus infection in patients attending a tertiary care Hospital at Valsad, South Gujarat, India. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in patients attending GMERS hospital, Valsad, South Gujarat during March 2015 to February 2016. Serum samples were collected and screened for HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface Antigen) by ELISA method. Result: Of 11,145 patients tested in this period 298(2.67%) were found to be positive for HBsAg, which includes 180(3.43%) males and 118(1.99%) females, and the most common affected age group was 21- 30 years. Conclusion: The present study shows the intermediate level of prevalence 298(2.67%) of Hepatitis B infection, in younger age group affecting more males. Combined and coordinated effort of community and health care provider may help to reduce prevalence of this infection
Prevalence Of Klebsiella In Urinary Tract Infection Among Pregnant Women From South India
Author:Nawaz Umar, Bilal Ahmad Mir
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 99-102
Introduction: One of the frequently seen complications in pregnancy is urinary tract infection. Other complications like acute and chronic pyelonephritis, hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation occur due to UTI. Early detection and treatment of bacteria helps in the prevention of chronic urinary disease in the community and to avoid complications in pregnancy at an early stage. In view of the above an attempt was made to isolate and identify the Klebsiella pathogens from urine in suspected cases of UTI in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 samples were investigated. The samples were collected from women attending the antenatal clinic at the Khaja Banda Nawaz Hospital, Gulbarga. A proforma was used to collect the data from the subjects of varying ages from 18 to 40 years, from varying gravida and all three trimesters were included. Sterilized urine container was used to collect urine with all aseptic precautions. Macroscopic and microscopic examination was done. Culture and biochemical reactions were done and the strains were isolated and identified. Results: 52 women were found to be suffering from UTI, giving a prevalence rate of 10.4% (52/500). The incidence of organisms isolated in bacteriuric cases showed Klebsiella as the major isolate constituting 25%. Conclusion: Urinary tract infection the most commonly seen complication in pregnancy. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were isolated. Klebsiella organism was isolated more commonly than other organisms in UTI in pregnant women.
Study Of Antifungal Susceptibility For Fluconazole And Clotrimazole Of Candida Species By Disc Diffusion Method In A Tertiary Care Centre In Karnataka
Author:Bhavana J, Yudukul. S, Anitha Kb
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 94-98
Background: Vulvo-vaginitis is a common day to day problem in gynecological practice. Candida albicans is the commonest infectious cause. There is limited data regarding the antifungal susceptibility of yeast causing Vulvo-vaginal candidiasis, since isolation by cultures are rarely performed, hence the present study was undertaken. The main objective of this study is to find out the Antifungal susceptibility for Fluconazole and Clotrimazole of Candida Species by disc diffusion method among patients visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of AJ Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. Methods: Vaginal swabs were collected from 100 patients visiting the hospital with history of white discharge and subjecting it to microscopy and culture. Candida isolates were further identified to species using conventional methods. Disc diffusion testing of each isolate with Fluconazole and Clotrimazole was performed as described in CLSI (formerly NCCLS) document M44-A. Results: In our study antifungal susceptibility test was by disc diffusion method. The sensitivity of the isolates in our study to Clotrimazole was 81% and to Fluconazole was 83.7%. Conclusion: To conclude, as the antifungal resistance does not seem to be a major problem in the general population, it may be appropriate to use courses of antifungal treatment in women with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Canine Parvovirus-2: An Insight Into Molecular Diagnosis And Characterization Methods
Author:Vikas Gupta, Vinod Kumar Singh
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 90-93
Canine parvovirus is an extremely contagious and serious disease caused by Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). The disease was first reported in 1978 and since then it continues to pose a severe threat to world canine populations. The virus can infect dogs of all breeds and wild carnivores, leading to considerable morbidity and mortality in young canines. The mortality rate may approach up to 90% in untreated cases of CPV infection whereas with timely and appropriate therapy, survival rates can be 80- 95%. Infected dogs during recovery from the disease and the subclinical shedder dogs are the major source of infection for contact animals and the environment contamination. To reduce the spread of the virus among the susceptible population and to help timely implementation of proper supportive treatment, rapid identification of the disease and isolation of CPV-2 positive animals at these stages of infection is vital. There are a number of methods developed for the laboratory confirmation of CPV infection viz., electron microscopy, virus isolation in cell culture, hemagglutination test, hemagglutination inhibition test, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and many molecular assays, which are usually carried out on the feces of affected dogs and the blood samples at late stages of infection. Since the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of CPV-2 is important for the timely treatment and control of CPV-2, the present review is focused on various nucleic acid detection based tests for rapid, sensitive and optimal diagnosis and characterization methods to aid in formulation of effective control strategies.
An Introduction To Tropical Disease: A Review Article
Author:Piyush Pujara, Mayur Parmar, Pratik Rupakar, Kailash Asawa, Shrikant Patel
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 81-83
Infectious diseases that either occur uniquely or more commonly in steamy and subtropical regions, are either more widespread in the tropics or extra tricky to prevent or control. The citizens who are the majority exaggerated by these diseases are frequently the poorest populations, whose residence is in remote, rural areas, urban slums or conflict zones. Neglected tropical diseases persevere under circumstances of scarcity and are intense approximately solely in poor populations in the developing world. The designation ?tropical diseases? arise at no meticulous date and was slowly merge, as microorganisms came to be recognized as the underlying factor of diseases and had their broadcast mechanisms elucidate. In practice, the term is often taken to pass on to infectious diseases that flourish in burning, moist circumstances, such as malaria, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas disease, African trypanosomiasis, and dengue. A number of the organisms that grounds tropical diseases are bacteria and viruses, conditions that may be recognizable to the majority people as these types of organisms? grounds sickness common. Fewer well recognized are those more compound organisms usually referred to as parasites. Global warming donates in introducing and scattering more diseases internationally, but in short term; it defiantly would not reason any epidemic circumstances by itself
Swamp Fever In Horse: A Brief Overview
Author:Subha Ganguly, Rajesh Wakchaure
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 3-2016 | Pagination: 79-80
Swamp fever also known as equine infectious anemia is a viral disease of horses. The etiology belongs to the family Retroviridae and is transmitted by blood sucking insects and mosquitoes. Different strains of the virus have common group specific antigens, but subtypes have different glycoproteins. The disease occurs in Americas, Europe, South Africa and in Middle and far East Russia
An Isolated Hydatid Cyst Of The Lung Spontaneously Evacuated Into The Bronchus
Author:Rajendra Prasad Takhar, Moti Lal Bunkar, Rama Kishan Saran, Saroj Mirdha, Savita Arya
Volume: 2 | Issue no: 1-2016 | Pagination: 35-38
Pulmonary hydatid cysts are common in endemic regions but isolated active pulmonary hydatid cyst, which is communicated with bronchus, is not a common finding in adult population. Here we present a case of 35-year-old male who presented with breathlessness, cough with expectoration, chest pain and a homogenous rounded opacity of right lower zone on chest X ray. Ultrasound, contrast enhanced computed tomography revealing mass like lesion with multiple internal air pockets with ring enhancement and expectoration of salty material with complete clearing of the lesion following a cough bout confirmed the diagnosis of complicated hydatid cyst communicating with bronchus.
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